Enoforum 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Enoforum Web 9 Enoforum Web Conference 2021 9 qNMR metabolomics a tool for wine authenticity and winemaking processes discrimination

qNMR metabolomics a tool for wine authenticity and winemaking processes discrimination


qNMR Metabolomic applied to wine offers many possibilities. The first application that is increasingly being studied is the authentication of wines through environmental factors such as geographical origin, grape variety or vintage (Gougeon et al., 2019). Another less common approach is from a qualitative point of view by studying the various oenological practices used that are an integral part of the elaboration of a wine. We wondered whether quantitative NMR could be used to dissociate the physical or chemical processes commonly used in oenology. The objective of this work was to provide a better understanding of the interactions between oenological processes and wine by determining the metabolites responsible for differentiation through 1H-NMR fingerprinting and chemometrics. 

About 40 molecules were quantified on wine samples that have undergone several physical and chemical processes. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and S-score were performed for the analytical discrimination of winemaking processes. 

The results obtained show that qNMR combined with chemometrics allows to dissociate not only physical processes such as filtration, but also chemical processes such as maceration temperature, enzymatic treatment and fining. In addition, the metabolites involved in the discrimination of these winemaking processes could also be determined.

The 1H-NMR metabolomics is a fast technique that could be used as a tool to help professionals decide on technical itineraries. 


Publication date: April 23, 2021

Issue: Enoforum 2021

Type: Article


Inès Le Mao1, Gregory Da Costa1, Jean Martin1, Eric Pedrot1, Soizic Lacampagne1, François Guyon2, Tristan Richard1

1Université de Bordeaux, Œnologie EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA, INP, ISVV, 210  chemin de Leysotte, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France
2Service Commun des Laboratoires, 3 Avenue du Dr. Albert Schweitzer, Pessac Cedex, France

Contact the author


Enoforum 2021 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Cultivation site effect on the quality of Moscato di Pantelleria

n 1997 and 1999, sixteen cultivation sites of cv. Muscat of Alexandria different for pedological conditions, altitude and exposition were selected through all Pantelleria isle. In 1997 in each site


In a recent study several genes controlling the acidification properties of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been identified by a QTL approach [1]. Many of these genes showed allelic variations that affect the metabolism of malic acid and the pH homeostasis during the alcoholic fermentation. Such alleles have been used for driving genetic selection of new S. cerevisiae starters that may conversely acidify or deacidify the wine by producing or consuming large amount of malic acid [2]. This particular feature drastically modulates the final pH of wine with difference of 0.5 units between the two groups.

Effect on the grape and wine characteristics of cv. Tempranillo at 3 production levels

The vineyard has experienced a general increase in yields mainly due to the elevated use of technology which caused a quality loss of grapes in more than one case. A large percentage of the Spanish vineyard is covered by a Denomination of Origin which limits the productive level of the vineyards as one of its regulations. The maximum production limit is a variable characteristic of each vineyard and is not usually regulated by agronomic criteria, and this explains the fact that each vineyard can reach high quality with a totally different yield from that set by the Denomination of Origin.

Determination of metallic elements in Chilean wines by atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry

The chemical composition of wines depends on series of variables such as the type of grape, edaphoclimatic conditions, and viticulture and winemaking practices employed during production. Metallic elements play a significant role during winemaking (e.g. as catalysts of oxidation reactions) and have been previously employed for the classification of wines according to provenance. In this work, we focused on the analysis of metallic elements (K, Na, Ca, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Cr, Al, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se, Co, Sn and As) in 145 Chilean wine samples (102 reds and 43 white wines), of seven grape varieties, and five of the major wine producing regions in Chile.

Non-Saccharomyces yeast nitrogen consumption and metabolite production during wine fermentation

Over the last decade, the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in the winemaking process has been re-assessed and accepted by winemakers. These yeasts can be used to achieve specific objectives such as lowering the ethanol content, preventing wine spoilage and increasing the production of specific aroma compounds. Since these species are unable to complete alcoholic fermentation, strategies of co- and sequential inoculation of non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been developed. However, when mixed starter cultures are used, several parameters (e.g. strain yeast, inoculation timing and nutrient competitions) impact the growth of the individual yeasts, the fermentation kinetics and the metabolites/aroma production. In particular, competition for nitrogen compounds could have a major impact, potentially leading to sluggish fermentation when the yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) availability is low. Moreover, many aroma compounds produced by the yeasts are directly produced and influenced by nitrogen metabolism such as higher alcohols, acetate esters and ethyl esters which participate in the organoleptic complexity of wine.