Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Influence of nitrogen source on expression of genes involved in aroma production in Saccharomyces uvarum

Influence of nitrogen source on expression of genes involved in aroma production in Saccharomyces uvarum

Abstract

Saccharomyces uvarum has interesting properties that can be exploited for the production of fermented beverages. Particularly, the cryotolerance and capacity to produce high amounts of volatile compounds offers new opportunities for the wine industry. Besides the contribution of the nitrogen source to primary metabolism, some nitrogen compounds are precursors of volatile molecules that produce aroma. The nitrogen compounds assimilated by yeast are classified as rich or poor nitrogen sources depending on how they affect the growth and the nitrogen regulation mechanisms. In S. cerevisiae, the nitrogen metabolism is well understood but less is known about these pathways in S. uvarum. The aim here is to understand the nitrogen metabolism in S. uvarum and the effects of the nitrogen source on the production of aroma volatiles at low temperature; the focus is on temperatures below 20°C since this is relevant for wine production. First, nitrogen preference was established using 10 different compounds as sole nitrogen sources for S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae: important differences were found in the efficiency of asparagine to support growth. The alcoholic fermentations done in synthetic must, showed the same pattern of nitrogen consumption in each species. Afterwards, comparative analysis of gene expression (RNAseq) of S. uvarum MTF3098 was carried out in ammonium, methionine, phenylalanine and asparagine to determine how the nitrogen source affects the expression of key genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and aroma production. The transcriptome data revealed substantial changes in expression patterns of nitrogen metabolism genes. The gene clusters with highest fold change when comparing inorganic nitrogen source (ammonium) and organic source (methionine, phenylalanine, asparagine) in S. uvarum MTF3098 were genes encoding transporters and proteins responsible for aroma synthesis; using amino acids as sole nitrogen source instead of ammonium resulted in an increased expression of this group of genes. This study increases understanding of the importance of the nitrogen source in the aroma production of Saccharomyces yeasts and broads the knowledge on S. uvarum aroma production for applications in wine industry. Ongoing work includes correlating transcriptome and volatile metabolome data to understand links between gene expression and aroma production in S. uvarum.

DOI:

Publication date: September 3, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article

Authors

Angela Coral Medina, Carole CAMARASA, John Morrissey, Darren Fenton

1 SPO, UMR, INRA, SupAgro, Universite de Montpellier, France 2 School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Ireland, SPO, UMR, INRA, SupAgro, Universite de Montpellier, France, School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Ireland, School of Biochemestry and Cell Biology, University College Cork, Ireland

Contact the author

Keywords

saccharomyces uvarum, nitrogen source, gene expression, aroma

Citation

Related articles…

Ripening of Mencía grape cultivar in different edaphoclimatic situations (D.O. Ribeira Sacra, Spain)

Ribeira Sacra is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (D.O.) for wines, located in Galicia, NW Spain.

Generation of functional chitosan derivatives to better understanding the antiseptic effect on Brettanomyces bruxellensis in wine

The addition of fungal chitosan in wine is allowed since 2009 to release some spoilage microorganisms such as Brettanomyces bruxellensis (OIV/OENO 338A/2009; EC 53/2011). This yeast is able to produce volatil phenols and is responsible of organoleptic deviations compromising quality and typicality of red wines [1]. Despite the fact that fungal chitosan is highly renewable, no toxic and non-allergenic, its use remains marginal because this treatment is relatively recent (compare to sulphites treatment) and information are contradictory between different studies described in literature. For all these reasons,

Un modello di lavoro per lo studio dell’ up-grading tecnologico del vigneto nel Veneto Occidentale. Connettività degli attori e mappatura su dati avepa integrati con rilevamento speditivo e qualitativo

Il lavoro si prefigge di esaminare la propensione alla modernizzazione della viticoltura del Veneto Occidentale, letto attraverso la diffusione di forme di allevamento a sviluppo contenuto.

On-the-go resistivity sensors employment to support soil survey for precision viticulture

There is an increasing need in agriculture to adopt site-specific management (precision farming) because of economic and environmental pressures. Geophysical on-the-go sensors, such as the ARP (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) system, can effectively support soil survey by optimizing sampling density according to the spatial variability of apparent electrical resistivity (ER).

Composition of grape grown on different Homogenous Terroir Units (HTU)

One cultivar could produce distinct wines with typical properties and qualities different depending on its cultivated and its mesoclimatic conditions.