Saccharomyces cerevisiae intraspecies differentiation by metabolomic signature and sensory patterns in wine

AIM: The composition and quality of wine are directly linked to microorganisms involved in the alcoholic fermentation. Several studies have been conducted on the impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on volatile compounds composition after fermentation. However, if different studies have dealt with combined sensory and volatiles analyses, few works have compared so far the impact of distinct yeast strains on the global metabolome of the wine. METHODS: Twelve wines were obtained from fermentations of Chardonnay musts led by twelve different commercial wine yeast strains of S. cerevisiae. In order to establish a possible link between sensory profiles and metabolic signatures, Ultra High Resolution Mass Spectrometry analysis of non-volatile compounds and Gaz Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry detection of volatile compounds, sensory analysis and chemometrics were used in combination. RESULTS: Wines were clearly discriminated, according to non-volatile, volatile and sensory analyses, despite the similar fermentation kinetics. Three groups of wines, described by similar aromatic descriptors such as fruity, vegetable and apple, were highlighted by the sensory analyses. The profiles of wines from the different groups were characterized based on 35 volatile compounds belonging to esters, medium chain fatty acids, superior alcohols and terpenes. Finally, metabolomics analyses revealed a non volatile composition specific to each wine, with biomarkers specific to each wine yeast strain of S. cerevisiae. CONCLUSIONS: The final composition of the wine is intimately linked to the specific production of metabolites by each strains of S. cerevisiae. The combination of analytical and sensory analyses allowed us to discriminate and characterized wines from the twelve strains of S. cerevisiae.

Authors: Fanny Bordet – University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, AgroSup Dijon, PAM UMR, Institut Universitaire de la Vigne et du Vin, Jules Guyot, France Lallemand SAS, 19 rue des Briquetiers, Blagnac, France,Chloé ROULLIER-GALL, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, AgroSup Dijon, PAM UMR, Institut Universitaire de la Vigne et du Vin, Jules Guyot, France Jordi BALLESTER, Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l’Alimentation, AgroSup Dijon, CNRS, INRA, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, F-21000 Dijon, France Stephania VICHI, University of Barcelona, Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy Department, INSA – XaRTA (Catalonian Reference Network on Food Technology), Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain Régis GOUGEON, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, AgroSup Dijon, PAM UMR, Institut Universitaire de la Vigne et du Vin, Jules Guyot, France Anne JULIEN-ORTIZ, Lallemand SAS, 19 rue des Briquetiers, Blagnac, France Philippe SCHMITT-KOPPLIN, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany Hervé ALEXANDRE, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, AgroSup Dijon, PAM UMR, Institut Universitaire de la Vigne et du Vin, Jules Guyot, France

Email: bordet.fanny@gmail.com

Keywords: yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae-wine- metabolomic-volatile compounds-sensory analysis

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