Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Does bioprotection by adding yeasts present antioxydant properties?

Does bioprotection by adding yeasts present antioxydant properties?


AIM: The bioprotection by adding yeasts is an emerging sulfur dioxide alternative. Sulfur dioxide is a chemical adjuvant used for its antiseptic, antioxidasic and antioxidant properties. Faced with the societal demand (Pérès et al., 2018) and considering the proven human risks associated with the total doses of sulfur dioxide (SO2) present in food requirements (García‐Gavín et al., 2012), the reduction of this chemical input is undeniable. Bioprotection allows the control of microbial communities by occupying the grape must niche (Simonin et al., 2018; Windholtz et al., 2021), but no studies have been conducted on its antioxidant properties. Indeed, in must, reaction cascades can take place, bringing into play different compounds that can lead to its undesired browning under the action of polyphenols oxydases. SO2 neutralizes these enzymes and regenerates the quinones. In the present study, bioprotection have been considered for its action on oxidation and on the availability of dissolved oxygen (O2).

METHODS: In order to evaluate the potential impact of bioprotection on dissolved O2 content, an experiment was conducted using semillon must. Three treatments were applicated: SO2 at 50 mg/L, without SO2 and bioprotection composed of two yeast species (Torulaspora delbrueckii and Metschnikowia pulcherrima in the same proportion) at 50 mg/L. O2 concentration was monitored during pre-fermentation phase, using a FireStingO2 compact oximeter (pyroscience, Aix-La-Chappelle, Allemagne). The glutathione, a natural antioxydant compound, was quantified in the musts and wines.

RESULTS: Based on dissolved O2 kinetics, the use of bioprotection led to a rapid consumption of O2 and limited browning comparing to the control, without SO2. The addition of SO2,by neutralizing the polyphenol oxydases (Ough and Crowell, 1987), also limited the O2 consumption. Bioprotection treatment allowed obtaining a significant higher concentration of glutathione in the finished wines than the control without SO2, thus allowing an interesting additional protection during bottle aging.


For the first time, this work highlighted the limitation of the white must oxidation by using non-Saccharomyces yeasts as bioprotection in a context of without SO2. By decreasing the availability of dissolved oxygen, bioprotection by adding yeast would slowing down the oxidation cascades. Furthermore, preservation of glutathione by bioprotection allows additional protection in wines.


Publication date: September 7, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article


Sara Windholtz, Claudia, Isabelle, Cécile

Unité de Recherche Œnologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRAE, Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux INP, ISVV, F33882 Villenave d’Ornon France , NIOI, Unité de Recherche Œnologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRAE, Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux INP, ISVV, F33882 Villenave d’Ornon France  Pascaline, REDON, Unité de Recherche Œnologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRAE, Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux INP, ISVV, F33882 Villenave d’Ornon France, MASNEUF-POMAREDE, Unité de Recherche Œnologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRAE, Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux INP, ISVV, F33882 Villenave d’Ornon France ; Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Gradignan, France, THIBON, Unité de Recherche Œnologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRAE, Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux INP, ISVV, F33882 Villenave d’Ornon France

Contact the author


bioprotection, oxygen consumption, gluthathion, white wine


Related articles…

Weather classification over the Western Cape (February, 1996 – 2000) and viticultural implications in the Stellenbosch wine district

Une étude préliminaire des situations météorologiques journalières a été réalisée pour l’Afrique du Sud et pour les mois de février (période de maturation des raisins dans la Province occidentale du Cap), à l’image de la classification synoptique réalisée aux latitudes tempérées en France (Jones & Davis, 2000), afin d’étudier les relations entre le climat et la viticulture à des latitudes plus basses.

Evolution of chemical pattern related to Valpolicella aroma ‘terroir’ during bottle aging

Valpolicella is a famous Italian wine-producing region. Wines produced in its different sub-regions are believed to be aromatically different, as confirmed by recent studies in our laboratory. Aging is a very common practice in Valpolicella and it is required by the appellation regulation for periods up to four years require wines. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution, during aging, of volatile chemical composition of Valpolicella wines obtained from grapes harvested in different sub-regions during different vintages.

Effects of organic mulches on the soil environment and yield of grapevine

Farming management practices aiming at conserving soil moisture have been developed in arid and semiarid-areas facing water scarcity problems. Organic mulching is an effective method to manipulate the crop-growing microclimate increasing crop yield by controlling soil temperature, and retaining soil moisture by reducing soil evaporation. In this sense, the effectiveness of different organic mulching materials (straw mulch and grapevine pruning debris) applied within the row of a vineyard was evaluated on the soil and on the vine in a Tempranillo vineyard located in La Rioja (Spain). Organic mulches were compared with a traditional bare soil management technique (based on the use of herbicides to avoid weed incidence). Mulching coverages favourably influenced the soil water retention throughout all the grapevine vegetative cycle. However, the soil-moisture variation was not the same under different mulching materials, being the straw mulch (SM) the one that retained more water in comparison with grapevine pruning debris (GPD) based-cover. The changes of soil moisture in the upper surface layer (0–10 cm) were highly dynamic, probably due to water vapour fluxes across the soil-atmospheric interface. However, both, SM and GPD reduced these fluctuations as compared with bare soils. A similar trend occurred with soil temperature. Both organic mulches altered soil temperature in comparison with bare soil by reducing soil temperature in summer and raising it in winter. Moreover, the same buffering effect for the temperature on the covered soil also remains in the deeper layers. To conclude, we could see that organic mulching had a positive impact on soil-moisture storage and soil temperature and the extent of this effect depends on the type of mulching materials. These changes led to higher rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductivity compared to bare soils, also favouring crop growth and grape yields.

Altered lignans accumulation in a somatic variant of Tempranillo with increased extractability of polyphenols during winemaking

Vegetative propagation of grapevines can generate spontaneous somatic variations, providing a valuable source for cultivar improvement. In this context, natural variation in the composition of phenolic compounds in grapevine berries and seeds stands as a pivotal factor in crafting wines with diverse oenological profiles from the same cultivar. To deepen on the understanding of the physiological and genetic mechanisms driving somatic variation in grape phenolics, here we characterized a somatic variant from Tempranillo Tinto, the clone VN21, that exhibits an intense reduced berry skin cuticle and increased extractability of phenolic compounds during wine fermentation.

Impact of harvest date on the terroir expression and the aroma profile of Touraine Sauvignon wines

L’objectif d’une étude sur trois années vise, pour des terroirs différents et connus pour le profil des vins qui en sont issus, à exploiter au mieux le potentiel des raisins en optimisant la date de récolte ; pour chacun des trois terroirs, les minivinifications sont réalisées à partir de trois dates de récolte . Il s’avère, grâce à un suivi analytique important (sol, précurseurs et arômes) et une caractérisation organoleptique bien encadrée (analyse sensorielle pertinente et objective), que le choix de la date de récolte, en fonction du terroir, a une incidence sur le profil du vin et devient un outil pour l’élaborateur.