Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Know thy enemy: oxygen or storage temperature?

Know thy enemy: oxygen or storage temperature?

Abstract

It is well known that high oxygen levels and high ageing temperatures are detrimental to white wine’s composition and ageing capacity. However, these results, though valuable, have often been obtained under extreme temperatures of oxygen levels that wine will normally not be exposed to (Cejudo-Bastante et al.,2013). Previous work performed have shown that multiple oxygen additions to wine can lead to the degradation of certain important compounds such as varietal thiols and SO2 (Coetzee et al., 2012). However, the interactive effects between oxygen additions normally experienced during bottling and temperatures that wine are exposed to during bottle ageing, have not received sufficient attention, especially in terms of sensorial development of the wine. The main aim of this work was thus to investigate the effects of different oxygen levels at bottling and subsequent bottle ageing temperatures on white wine’s chemical and sensorial development over time. Sauvignon Blanc and Chenin Blanc wines were both produced under relative reductive conditions and then bottled at 0.3, 3 and 6 mg/L total packaged oxygen and closed under screw cap. These wines were then stored at either 15 or 25 °C for 6 and 12 months and analysed for a wide array of compounds (antioxidants, colour, varietal thiols and major volatiles) as well as sensorially with descriptive analyses using a trained panel. Oxygen levels in the wine decreased more rapidly in the wines stored at 25 °C. However, the parameter tested that was influenced by the different oxygen additions to the largest extent was the SO2 levels, which decreased the most at the highest oxygen levels. Time was the largest contributor in terms of changes in the yellow/brown colour and glutathione levels. Varietal thiols levels were not affected by the oxygen levels, but higher temperatures led to more rapid acid hydrolyses of 3MHA in the case of the Chenin Blanc wines. Certain fruity esters also decreased quicker at the higher storage temperatures. Time and especially storage temperature had the largest effects on the sensory composition of the Sauvignon Blanc wines, with oxygen influencing it to almost no extent. Higher storage temperatures led to less fruity aromas such as grapefruit and passion fruit after 12 months, with more baked apple. The trends were less clear in the Chenin Blanc after 6 months, but oxygen led to significantly lower levels of the guava descriptors, with little difference observed between the treatments after 12 months. This work indicates that wine producers should strive to keep oxygen pickup to a minimum during bottling, but that such quality control procedures is probably to a large extent negated if the wines are exposed to too high storage temperatures during subsequent bottle ageing.

DOI:

Publication date: September 14, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article

Authors

Wessel Du Toit 

South African Grape and Wine Research Institute, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Stellenbosch University,James Walls, South African Grape and Wine Research Institute, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Stellenbosch University Carien Coetzee, Basic wine

Contact the author

Keywords

oxidation, bottling, bottle ageing

Citation

Related articles…

Physiological and growth reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt to row orientation and soil water status

Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.

Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California

San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.

The effects of cane girdling on berry texture properties and the concentration of some aroma compounds in three table grape cultivars

The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.

Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot Blanc grape

The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.

Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture

Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.