Effects of the addition of yeast derived products during aging in chardonnay sparkling winemaking

Abstract

AIM: From the beginning of the yeast autolysis process, several interesting intracellular and cell wall constituyents are released to the media providing different characteristics to the wine, being this process extensively studied in sparkling wines due to their important contribution to their properties (1-2). Yeast derived products (YDs) try to emulate the natural yeast autolysis compounds release enhancing the organoleptic characteristics of resulting wines (2-3). This study is a comprehensive evaluation of the impact of the addition of different YDs added to base wine on the chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of the resulting sparkling wines.

METHODS: Chardonnay base wine was employed to carry out this study. Three experimental YDs were added at 5 and 10 g/hL to the tirage liqueur: a yeast autolysate (YA), a yeast protein extract (PE) and an inactivated dry yeast from Torulaspora delbrueckii, (TD), and two commercial specific inactivated dry yeast: OPTIMUM WHITE® (OW) and PURE-LONGEVITY®(PL). After second fermentation, measurements were carried out after 3, 6, 9 and 18 months of aging on lees. General enological parameters, proteins, polysaccharides (HPLC-DAD-RID), volatile compounds profile (GC-MS), foaming characteristics (Mosalux), and descriptive sensory analyses were carried out.

RESULTS: Esters decreased significantly for all the YDs added along the first 9 months unless for the cases of YE and OW. However, from 9 to 18 months of aging, the total amount of esters increased in all the treatments except YE and OW, specially remarkable was the increase for wines treated with TD. Terpenes diminished significantly from 9 to 18 months of aging exceptuating again the treatment TD, in where the presence of these compounds increased. Hence, for the production of sparkling wines with a short aging period it would be recommended the addition of YE or OW, and for long aging, TD. No significant differences of the total amount of volatile compounds were found among the different dosages of derivatives tested. After 9 months of aging, YA and OW accounted the highest foamability, specially for the highest dose. In general, the addition of YDs decreased significantly the time to reach the maximum high (TM) of the foam (HM) in wines aged 9 months. Moreover, the addition of YA and OW gave rise to the sparkling wines with the highest foam stability (HS). Sensory trials showed that the differences between aging periods (9 and 18 months) were higher than differences among YDs treatments.

CONCLUSIONS:

Several secondary metabolites and foam characteristecs were positively influenced by YDs addition to the wines. This, join to the expectations of aging time for that wine, will be essential to decide which of the YDs is better to use during the production of sparkling wines by traditional method.

DOI:

Publication date: September 15, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article

Authors

Cristina Ubeda

Nutrition and Bromatology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Spain. ,Rubén DEL BARRIO-GALÁN, Agroindustry and Enology Department, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. Mª Ignacia LAMBERT-ROYO, Agroindustry and Enology Department, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. Nathalie SIECZKOWSKI, Lallemand SAS, 19 rue des Briquetiers, BP 59, 31 702 Blagnac, France. Joan Miquel CANALS, Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Enology, University Rovira I Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.  Álvaro PEÑA-NEIRA, Agroindustry and Enology Department, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. Mariona GIL i CORTIELLA, Applied Chemical Sciences Institute, Autonomous University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Contact the author

Keywords

sparkling wine, yeast derived products, aging on lees, foam characteristics, sensory properties, secondary metabolites

Citation

Related articles…

EVALUATION OF INDIGENOUS CANADIAN YEAST STRAINS AS WINE STARTER CULTURES ON PILOT SCALE FERMENTATIONS

The interactions between geographical and biotic factors, along with the winemaking process, influence the composition and sensorial characteristics of wine¹. In addition to the primary end products of alcoholic fermentation, many secondary metabolites contribute to wine flavor and aroma and their production depends predominantly on the yeast strain carrying out the fermentation. Commercially available strains of S. cerevisiae help improve the reproducibility and predictability of wine quality. However, most commercial wine strains available on the market have been isolated from Europe, are genetically similar, and may not be the ideal strain to reflect the terroir of Canadian vineyards².

Pedological factor influence on the viticultural zoning of the Aljarafe Alto (Seville, Spain)

Aljarafe Alto est une petite zone naturelle dans le département de Séville (Espagne), où le cépage autochtone cultivé est le Palomino Garrido Fino.

Obtaining new varieties derived from Monastrell for the preparation of low alcoholic wines

The main challenge faced by viticulture is to improve the quality of the wines, adapting them to the new consumer demands that demand wines with lower alcohol content and greater freshness. In the last 30 years, a clear modification has been observed in the composition of the grape due to climate change

Impact of drought stress on concentration and composition of wine proteins in Riesling

Protein haze in white wines is a major technological and economic problem of the wine industry. Field tests were carried out in steep slope vineyards planted with Riesling grapes over 3 dry growing seasons to study the effect of drought stress on the concentration of proteins in the resulting wines. Plots suffering from drought stress were compared with surrounding drip irrigated plots. Riesling grapes were processed into wines by conventional procedures. Protein amounts of the isolated wine colloids of the stressed samples were always higher than those of the watered samples(mean watered 13.8 ± 0.44, mean stressed 17.4 ± 0.40 g 100 g-1). As a consequence, higher bentonite doses were needed to achieve protein haze stability of the drought stressed treatments.

Effect of oenological tannins on wine aroma before and after oxidation: a real-time study by coupling sensory (TDS) and chemical (PTR-ToF-MS) analyses

Polyphenols are important compounds involved in many chemical and sensory wine features. In winemaking, adding oenological tannins claims to have positive impacts on wine stability, protection from oxidation and aroma persistence. Polyphenols are antioxidant compounds by either scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species or chelating Fe2+ ions (1). However, as tannins oxidation leads to the formation of highly reactive species (i.e. ortho-quinones), it is still unclear if they have an effective role toward oxidation of wine aromas (2). In this work, we aim at studying the effect of two commercial tannins (proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins) on red wine flavour (mainly aroma) before and after air exposition.