Aromatic profile of chardonnay – clone 809: from berry to sparkling wine in an altitude vineyard

Abstract

AIM: Wine consumption is linked to the aromatic profile, consumer acceptance, and reflects the viticultural and oenological practices applied, together with the study related to clones is a way to evaluate the adaptation, production, and search for differentiated aromatic characteristics. Thus, the aromatic profile of Chardonnay cultivar clone 809 was evaluated, due to its moscato character, in order to verify its potential for sparkling wines in the southeast region of Minas Gerais (Brazil) in comparison to clone 76 that the plantation is predominant in the region.

METHODS: The study was conducted in a 6-year-old experimental altitude vineyard of EPAMIG located at Caldas city, and vinification was performed according to the traditional method, Champenoise (18 months in sur lie). Grapes were harvested in the maturity stage for sparkling wine production and in both fermentation was applied Saccharomyces bayanus yeast. The free volatile compounds were identified by HS-SPME/GC-MS in two consecutive seasons, 2017 and 2018, and in the clones 76 and 809 of Chardonnay cultivar grafted onto 1103 Paulsen and trained on a vertical shoot positioned trellis.

RESULTS: It was pointed out between 54 and 90 compounds in all matrices (berry, must, base wine and sparkling wine), and the number of monoterpenoid compounds found in clone 809 was slightly more than double that found in clone 76 (31 compounds against 14), as was the abundance of these compounds in all of them. The multivariate analysis was applied for the base and sparkling wines evaluation for both clones and seasons, showing that the process steps differentiate in PC 1 (42.3%, base wine x sparkling wine), PC2 discriminated the clones (16.8%, clone 809 x clone 76), and the third component (15.1%) distinguished the base wines in seasons and the sparkling wines were grouped together conforming to the clone. Clone 809 was discriminated according to the following compounds: α-terpineol, linalool, ß-mircene, hotrienol, nerol oxide and limonene.

CONCLUSIONS

According to the multivariate analysis, the sparkling wines were grouped by their clones, suggesting that, regardless of the vintage, the sparkling wine, showed significant influence derived from clone genetics, and that according to the compounds confers floral, fruity and sweet aromas to sparkling wines elaborated with Chardonnay grape berries – clone 809. Although the data showed this difference between Chardonnay clones, the sensory analysis would be an additional tool to confirm the Moscato character and to guide further experiments.

DOI:

Publication date: September 15, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article

Authors

Naíssa, Prévide Bernardo

Food and Experimental Nutrition Department, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Food Research Center, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil ,Aline, de OLIVEIRA – Food and Experimental Nutrition Department, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Food Research Center, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil  Renata, Vieira da MOTA – Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais, Experimental Farm of Caldas, Grape and Wine Technological Center, Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil  Francisco Mickael, de Medeiros CÂMARA – Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais, Experimental Farm of Caldas, Grape and Wine Technological Center, Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil  Isabela, PEREGRINO – Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais, Experimental Farm of Caldas, Grape and Wine Technological Center, Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil  Murillo, de A. REGINA – Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais, Experimental Farm of Caldas, Grape and Wine Technological Center, Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil  Eduardo, PURGATTO – Food and Experimental Nutrition Department, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Food Research Center, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Contact the author

Keywords

vitis vinifera, moscato character, food analysis, grape, pca analysis, hs-spme, gc-ms, flavour

Citation

Related articles…

Cork and Wine: interactions and newly formed compounds

When the cork is in direct contact with an alcoholic solution such as in case of a bottle wine, some cork components can migrate into the wine.

The effect of water stress deficit on ‘Xynisteri’ grapes through systems biology approaches

Cyprus is one of the very few phyloxera-free areas worldwide where the vast majority of vines are own-rooted and non-irrigated. ‘Xynisteri’ is a predominant indigenous cultivar, particularly amenable to extreme conditions such as drought and hot climate, thus rendering it appropriate for marginal soils and adverse climatic conditions. In the current work, a comparative study between irrigated (irrigation initiated at BBCH 71) and non-irrigated vines was conducted.

Preliminary characterisation of mannoproteins from different wine yeast strains and impact on wine properties

Mannoproteins (MPs) are released from the yeast cell wall during alcoholic fermentation and aging on the lees, and influence aspects of wine quality such as haze formation and colour stability. Yet, as this is a slow process with microbiological and sensory risks, the exogenous addition of extracted MPs poses an efficient alternative. While Saccharomyces cerevisiae has long been studied as a prominent source for MPs extraction, their structure and composition greatly differ between yeast species. This may influence their behaviour in the wine matrix and subsequent impact on wine properties. However, although wine yeast species other than S. cerevisiae possibly present an untapped source of MPs, they are still ill-characterised in terms of chemical composition and influence on wine.

Origin of unpleasant smelling sulphur compounds during wine fermentation

The wine sector is undergoing considerable transformation, particularly as a result of climate change and increasing consumer expectations for quality products, in a globalised and increasingly competitive market.

Influence of edapho-climatic factors on grape quality in Conca de Barberà vineyards (Catalonia, Spain)

Soil and climate of 3 vineyards have been characterised in order to determine their influence on grape quality. These vineyards are located in Conca de Barberà (Catalonia, NE Spain) and belong to Cabernet sauvignon and Grenache noir cultivars. All 3 plots are very close, so only interannual climatic data of the nearest meteorological station have been considered.