Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Macrowine 9 Macrowine 2021 9 Chemical diversity of 'special' wine styles: fortified wines, passito style, botrytized and ice wines, orange wines, sparkling wines 9 Comparison of two procedures to measure foamability from sparkling base wines supplemented with acacia gums

Comparison of two procedures to measure foamability from sparkling base wines supplemented with acacia gums


In sparkling wines, foam is a relevant aspect whose measurement method could affect the results. The shaking test (ST) is a simple method measuring foamability1,2. But, unlike the most used and classical sparging-gas method (the so-called Mosalux; MOS)3, the amount of gas introduced is not controlled. MOS is, however, longer and needs more complex equipment. Our work compares both methods trying to demonstrate that ST can be an alternative and reliable method easily used by winemakers and enological laboratories.Eight base wines were elaborated by the traditional method, treated with bentonite, stirred and filtered. The origins of three base wines were three different regions from Spain (using Moscatel and Macabeo grapes). The other five were elaborated in the French region of Champagne (using Chardonnay and Pinot noir grapes). Four Acacia gums fractions were separately added to two selected wines (one French wine and one Spanish wine). These two (six modalities: control, bentonite-treated and gums fractions-treated wines; n=12) and the other six wines (two modalities: control and bentonite-treated wines; n’=12) were analyzed by MOS and ST. In this way the differences of wines were not only caused by the origin and by the cultivar but also by varying oenological techniques, ensuring a great variability of samples. Using MOS, wine was in a glass cylinder with a frit at the bottom injecting CO2. The Maximum Foam Height (HM-MOS) and the Foam Stability Height (HS-MOS) were measured. In ST, wine in tubes was strongly hand-shaken. The foam height was measured at 5 sec. (ST5) and every 10 sec. (ST10, ST20…) during 90 seconds (all in triplicate).ST required six times less amount of wine and gum fractions than MOS. The Maximum Foam Height by ST (HM-ST) was always reached at ST5 (closely followed by ST10). The foam stability period (when foam height was not statistically different to the last measure) always started before or just at ST70. In all modalities of both selected wines, HM-MOS and HM-ST presented similar ANOVA-statistical relationships. However, HS-MOS and ST90 were statistically related only in one selected wine. Multiple regression analyses were performed trying to know if some correlation could be established between (i) the foam height values at T5 and T10 by ST and (ii) the HM-MOS of 24 varying wines, as well as between (I) the foam height values at T70 and T90 by ST and (II) the HS-MOS. T5 and T10 were selected as the two moments presenting the two higher foam height values. T70 and T90 were selected as the two moments when the foam stability period began and finished. Multiple Regressions showed that HM-MOS correlated with ST5-ST10, and HS-MOS with ST70-ST90 (R2>70%; p


Publication date: September 15, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article


Thierry Doco

UMR-1083/SPO, INRAE-Montpellier, France,Rafael Apolinar-Valiente, UMR-1208/IATE, Montpellier SupAgro, France. Thomas Salmon, LOCA, Université de Reims, France. Pascale Williams, UMR-1083/SPO, INRAE-Montpellier, France.  Michaël Nigen, UMR-1208/IATE, Université Montpellier, France. Christian Sanchez, UMR-1208/IATE, Université Montpellier, France. Richard Marchal, LVBE, Université de Haute-Alsace, Colmar, France.

Contact the author


sparkling base wine; foamability; shaking test; gas-sparging method; maximum foam height; foam stability height


Related articles…

Physiological and growth reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt to row orientation and soil water status

Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.

Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California

San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.

The effects of cane girdling on berry texture properties and the concentration of some aroma compounds in three table grape cultivars

The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.

Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot Blanc grape

The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.

Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture

Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.