Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Macrowine 9 Macrowine 2021 9 Chemical diversity of 'special' wine styles: fortified wines, passito style, botrytized and ice wines, orange wines, sparkling wines 9 Effect of different winemaking practices on chemical composition, aroma profile and sensory perception of ribolla gialla sparkling wines

Effect of different winemaking practices on chemical composition, aroma profile and sensory perception of ribolla gialla sparkling wines

Abstract

AIM: This study aims at evaluating the effects of different refermentation methods (Martinotti/Charmat vs. Classic) on the chemical composition, aroma profile and sensory characteristics of Ribolla Gialla sparkling wines; furthermore, certain winemaking practices (skin contact and use of pectolytic enzymes) were investigated considering the extraction of varietal aromas and aroma precursors.

METHODS: Sparkling wines were produced at pilot-plant scale. Concerning refermentation methods, traditional Martinotti (MB – 30 days length), extended Martinotti (ML) with 4 months of aging on lees and Classic method (CL) with 11 months of aging on lees were compared; in a second trial, skin contact (MM), enzyme addition on must also subjected to maceration (ME), and enzyme addition on base wine (VE) were evaluated. All experimental trials were performed in triplicate. Basic chemical composition, varietal (terpenes and C13-norisoprenoids in free and bound form) and non-varietal aroma compounds were evaluated by LLE-GCMS analysis; finally, sensory analysis was also performed, by descriptive testing.

RESULTS: Basic chemical composition was influenced by refermentation method, with higher acidity and lower pH in MB and the occurrence of malolactic fermentation in ML and CL. The aroma profile was also affected by winemaking practices applied. In sparkling wines produced by MB, a higher concentration of trans-geraniol was observed; this is the only terpenol found Ribolla Gialla grapes [1], even if below its odor threshold [2]; however, the aroma profile of MB sparkling wines was mainly characterized by esters that generally confer fresh, fruity and floral notes to the wines (e.g., hexyl acetate) [3]; on the other hand, esters formed during ageing (e.g., ethyl lactate) together with fatty acids and higher alcohols were found in higher concentration in CL sparkling wines, making their aroma profile more complex; finally, wines obtained by ML showed the poorest volatile profile. These results were also confirmed by sensory analysis. Skin contact and especially enzyme addition on base wine allowed to obtain a higher extraction and release of some varietal aroma compounds (e.g., geraniol, linalool and α-terpineol), even if below their odor thresholds. The same trend was observed for C13-norisoprenoids, except for β-damascenone. Concerning non-varietal aroma compounds, sparkling wines obtained by MM and ME showed the highest concentration of some esters (e.g. isoamyl acetate), probably related to a greater extraction of their precursors (amino acids) from grapes [4, 5].

CONCLUSIONS:

The overall chemical composition and sensory profile of Ribolla Gialla sparkling wines are significantly affected by the enological practices used. These results may address winemakers to produce Ribolla Gialla sparkling wines, tailored on market needs and consumer’s preference.

DOI:

Publication date: September 15, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article

Authors

Sabrina Voce , Franco, BATTISTUTTA, Lara, TAT, Paolo, SIVILOTTI, Piergiorgio, COMUZZO, 

University of Udine, Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, via delle Scienze 206, Udine – Italy

Contact the author

Keywords

sparkling wine, ribolla gialla, refermentation, aroma compounds, maceration, enzyme

Citation

Related articles…

A methyl salicylate glycoside mapping of monovarietal Italian white wines.

Among the main plant secondary metabolites, glycosides have a key-role in wine chemistry. Glycosides are non-volatile complex composed of a non-sugar component (aglycone) bound to one or more carbohydrates.

Impact of changing climatic factors on physiological and vegetative growth

Scientific information on grapevine response to predicted levels of climate parameters is scarce and not sufficient to properly position the Wine Industry for the future. It is critical that the combined effects of increased temperature and CO2 on grapevines should be examined, without omitting the important link to soil water conditions. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of envisioned changes in climatic parameters on the functioning and growth of young grafted grapevines under controlled conditions, simulating expected future climate changes. Scientific knowledge of precisely how the newly-planted grapevine will react morphologically, anatomically and physiologically (at leaf, root and whole plant level) to the expected changes in important climatic parameters will enable producers to make better-informed decisions regarding terroir, cultivar and rootstock choices as well as the adaptation of current cultivation practices.

Uncovering the effectiveness of vineyard techniques used to delay ripening through meta-analysis

One of the most concerning trends associated with increasing heat and water stress is advanced ripening of grapes, which leads to harvesting fruit at higher sugar concentrations but lacking optimal phenolic (i.e. color and mouthfeel) and aromatic maturity. Mitigation techniques for this phenomenon have been studied for many years and practices to delay sugar accumulation have been identified, including antitranspirants, delayed pruning and late-source-limitation techniques. Evaluation of the efficacy of these vineyard practices has occurred across a wide range of environments, vintages, varieties and growing conditions. To assess the broader efficacy of these three vineyard practices, which are easy-to-implement and cost-effective, a meta-analytic approach was adopted using data retrieved from 43 original studies.

Tannin potential and molecular toasting in cooperage: a tool to modulate fruity expression of red wine

AIM: Oak wood play traditionally a huge role in making fine red wines. During wine maturation, barrel yields some of its constituents to the wine and leads to the improvement of its quality, contributing to richness and complexity [1].

Sustainable viticulture’ the “semi‐minimal” pruned “hedge” system for grape vines long term experience on cv. Sangiovese (Vitis vinifera L.)

In previous experiments carried out in Bologna on Sangiovese grapevines raised with the Australian “Minimal Pruning” system, it has been shown that this system left an excessive burden of buds on the vine.