Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Impact of the non-volatile matrix composition on red wine aroma release and perception of olfactory and oral cues

Impact of the non-volatile matrix composition on red wine aroma release and perception of olfactory and oral cues


AIM: Aroma and mouthfeel cues are the main characteristics defining red wine quality. During wine tasting, perceptual and physical-chemical phenomena leading to mutual interactions between volatiles and non-volatiles sensory active compounds, can occur. Aroma perception depends on the release of volatiles from wine, that is affected by wine constituents present in the medium (Pittari et al. 2021; Lyu et al. 2021).

Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the non-volatile wine matrix composition (polyphenols, PPh) on the release and perception of red wine aromas by an experiment of matrix enrichment.

METHODS: A saigner (bleed) wine (S) was progressively added with increasing amount of dry extract from a deodorized pressed wine (P). Four different wine matrices having the same VOCs composition and increasing (ANOVA, α<0.05) anthocyanins and tannins concentrations, were obtained: S, S1P0.5, S1P1.5, S1P2. The oral and olfactory characteristics of the wine matrices were evaluated by a descriptive sensory assessment on a numerical category scale, and the overall odour and astringency intensities were also tested.  How the different non-volatile matrix composition affected the release of VOCs, was tested by HS-SPME/GC-MS in conditions reproducing those occurring during wine tasting (30 mL of wine in INAO tulip shaped wine glasses, 25±1°C).

RESULTS: Results show that the release of red wine VOCs belonging to different chemical classes can be significantly affected by anthocyanins and tannins concentration. The release of important wine aromas, such as linalool, ethyl butanoate and ethyl decanoate raised over their detection threshold as PPhs increased.


Correlations between chemical and sensory results, suggest that even if the matrix effect was not significant on the overall odour intensity, it modulated the olfactory profile of the wine matrices and the perception of specific mouthfeel features.


Publication date: September 17, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article


Paola Piombino, Maria Tiziana,  LISANTI Elisabetta,  PITTARI Luigi , PICARIELLO Luigi MOIO 

Department of Agricultural Science, University of Naples Federico II, Italy,  

Contact the author


red wine matrix, aromas, phenolics, release, sensory perception


Related articles…


Climate change has brought several impacts that are becoming increasingly intense during the last few years and put at risk the quality of the berries or even the plant’s sustainability. Such extreme climatic events impact the composition of the wine while modulating its quality and the consumer preferences (Tempère et al., 2019). The three most important changes that take place in the must are: 1) decrease acidity, 2) increase of the concentration of sugar, hence increase of alcohol in the wine, and 3) modification
of the sensory balance and the development for example of cooked fruit aromas.

Climate change impacts on Douro Region viticulture and adaptation measures

Climate has a significant impact in the success of any agricultural system, with a direct influence on the crops suitability to a given region, interfering on yield and quality and also with the economic sustainability of the productive activity. In the Douro Demarcated Region (RDD), as in most regions of the Mediterranean climate, the scarce precipitation (33% has less than 600 mm per year), and your high variability, associated with high rates of evapotranspiration during the summer, is usually one of the fundamental factors that limit the grapevine development, as well as the production and quality of the harvest. Thus, facing the scenario in temperature changes for the next decades (1.5-2.5°C) and confirming the predictions of precipitation decreases and/or great variability in the occurrence of heat waves and intense rainfall, the consequences for slope stability in mountain viticulture and sustainability of all operations involved, are risks to be taken into account. In this way, a deepest and sustained knowledge regarding the adaptation measures to adverse environmental conditions is of a crucial importance, enabling a more efficient adaptation of plant growth conditions and the optimization of production and quality of the grapevines. The development of this work, carried out in two commercial vineyards, one located in Soutelo do Douro, São João da Pesqueira, Cima Corgo sub-region, and another located in Numão, Vila Nova de Foz Côa, Douro Superior sub-region, it seeks to establish a relationship between climatic elements and physiological, productive and qualitative parameters, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation measures, including different types of deficit irrigation (2002-2019) and the application of shading nets (2019-2020) in the physiological, viticultural and oenological behavior in the Touriga Nacional and Moscatel Galego Branco varieties, respectively. The results showed that the application of deficit irrigation allowed to significantly reduce the impact of the adverse weather conditions at key moments in the development of the grapevine, particularly in the period immediately before veráison and maturation, reducing the negative effects on the physiological processes and productivity, without compromise the must quality parameters. On the other hand, the application of shading nets significantly reduced de leaves temperature, allowing to increase the water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate of grapes, which was reflected in the yield increase in the 2nd year of the study. For the maturation indicators, higher levels of total acidity, malic acid and assimilable nitrogen were obtained. The last measure presents a huge potential, being essential to carry out more years of trials to obtain stronger conclusions in terms of production parameters, but also in characteristics as important as the grape ripening components and the organoleptic characteristics of wines.


Pinking is the emergence of pink tones in white wines exclusively produced from white grape varieties, known as pinking phenomena for many years. Pinking is essentially appeared when white wines are produced under reducing conditions [1,2,3]. Pinking usually occurs after bottling and storage of white wines, but its appearance has also been described after alcoholic fermentation or even as soon as the grape must is extracted [4]. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the existence of an-thocyanins in white wines made from different white grape varieties and grown locations and critically evaluate the most common method used for predicting pinking appearance in white wines: the Pinking Susceptibility Index (PSI).

Influence of vine spacing on water status, productivity, yield and must composition in Tempranillo grapevine under Duero Valley zone conditions

L’objectif de cette étude est analyser l’influence de la densité de plantation sur l’état hydrique (potentiel hydrique), le comportement productif (matière sèche et rendement) et la expression qualitative (poids de baie, degrée Brix, pH, acidité totale, concentration polyphénolique) de la varieté Tempranillo dans la Vallée du Douro, à l’A.O. Cigales.

Effects of soil characteristics on manganese transfer from soil to vine and wine

Aim: In recent times the export of Beaujolais wines has been jeopardised due to a limit of manganese content (Mn) in wine implemented by China (2 mg/L), related to suspicions of potassium permanganate fraud. Nevertheless, soil Mn content may be high in some soil types in Beaujolais. The aim of this study was to improve knowledge of manganese transfer from soil to vine and wine because data on this subject is scarce.