Water relations of woody perennial plant species

Abstract

Field irrigation experiments were performed on young « Nonpareil » almond trees, mature « Bartlett » pear trees and mature « Pinot Noir » grapevines, to determine the relation of a number of alternative measures of plant water status (predawn and midday stem and leaf water potential), to a number of indices of plant physiological activity (leaf conductance, vegetative growth and fruit growth and composition). Almonds were exposed to three levels of irrigation over three years, and midday stem water potential (SWP) and leaf conductance, collected at approximately weekly intervals, is reported for the third year of the study. A strong linear increase in both leaf conductance and trunk growth occurred with increasing SWP, and this relation was consistent both within and between treatments. A similarly positive linear relation was found between SWP and fruit size in pear, with a negative relation between SWP and fruit soluble solids and fruit color. In grapevine, SWP was found to be uniform across all lower canopy positions tested (trunk, cordon and near the base of current year shoots) and positively correlated to early season shoot growth even before irrigation treatments were applied. Midday SWP was found to be more sensitive than midday leaf water potential (LWP) for detecting treatment differences over the course of the season, but both were well correlated to average seasonal leaf conductance within and between irrigation treatments. Predawn SWP and LWP were not as well correlated to average seasonal leaf conductance, but the most important factor determining midday leaf conductance was wind speed, indicating that grape leaf stomatal responses are quite sensitive to this environmental factor.

DOI:

Publication date: January 12, 2022

Issue: Terroir 2006

Type: Article

Authors

Kenneth A. SHACKEL

Department of Plant Sciences/Pomology
University of California
Davis, CA, USA, 95616-8683

Contact the author

Keywords

Stem water potential, SWP, leaf water potential, LWP, predawn, midday, leaf conductance, fruit growth, fruit quality

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2006

Citation

Related articles…

Contribution of seeds to red wine phenolic composition

Tannin composition is an important attribute in red wine quality, and it is therefore critical to understand the factors influencing tannin extraction during alcoholic fermentation. Tannins contribute to the mouthfeel of wines, but they also form pigmented polymers...

Valpolicella chemical pattern of aroma ‘terroir’ evolution during aging

Valpolicella is an Italian region famous for the production of high quality red wines. Wines produced in its different sub-regions are believed to be aromatically different, as confirmed by recent studies in our laboratory. Aging is a very common practice in Valpolicella and it is required by the appellation regulation for periods up to four years. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution, during aging, of volatile chemical composition of Valpolicella wines obtained from grapes harvested in different sub-regions during different vintages.

OPTIMISATION OF THE AROMATIC PROFILE OF UGNI BLANC WINE DISTILLATE THROUGH THE CONTROL OF ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

The online monitoring of fermentative aromas provides a better understanding of the effect of temperature on the synthesis and the loss of these molecules. During fermentation, gas and liquid phase concentrations as well as losses and total productions of volatile compounds can be followed with an unprecedented acquisition frequency of about one measurement per hour. Access to instantaneous production rates and total production balances for the various volatile compounds makes it possible to distinguish the impact of temperature on yeast production (biological effect) from the loss of aromatic molecules due to a physical effect³.

An excessive leaf-fruit ratio reduces the yeast assimilable nitrogen in the must

Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) in the grape must is a key variable for wine quality as a source of aroma precursors. In a situation of YAN deficiency, a foliar urea application upon the vine at veraison enhances YAN concentration and facilitates must fermentation. In 2013, Agroscope investigated the impact of leaf-fruit ratio on the nitrogen (N) assimilation and partitioning in grapevine Vitis vinifera cv. Chasselas following foliar-urea application with the aim of improving its efficiency on the YAN concentration.

Influence of pre-fermentative steps on varietal thiol precursors

The content of 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol and its acetate ester in wine is affected by a number of factors, including the concentration of its precursors S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-L-glutathione (G-3SH),