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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 GiESCO 2023 9 Category: Technical sessions

Technical sessions

Oral presentations

GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

Does spotted lanternfly phloem-feeding have downstream effects on wine volatiles? Preliminary insights into compositional shifts

The Spotted lanternfly (SLF), first detected in the U.S. in 2014, is an invasive phloem-feeding planthopper that poses a growing threat to grape and wine production in the U.S. In Pennsylvania, where it was first detected, reductions in grapevine production and fruit quality have been reported by commercial growers. Recent advances have begun to elucidate how SLF affects grapevine physiology and resource allocation, but no research has identified how SLF affects wine chemical composition and quality. Documented reductions in fruit sugar allocation due to heavy SLF phloem-feeding may have downstream effects on wine fermentation dynamics. Additionally, secondary metabolic responses stimulated by SLF may also influence berry chemical composition. The present study investigated SLF-mediated effects on wine composition through analysis of the volatile composition of wines produced from white- and red-fruited varieties of different Vitis parentage (e.g., Vitis vinifera vs. interspecific hybrids) following prolonged exposure to adult SLF phloem-feeding.

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GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

Litchi tomato as a fumigation alternative in Washington state wine grape vineyards

The northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) is one of the most prevalent plant-parasitic nematodes affecting Washington State Vitis vinifera vineyards. This nematode induces small galls on roots, restricting water and nutrient uptake. In new vineyards this can impede establishment. In existing vineyards, it can exacerbate decline in chronically stressed vines. While preplant fumigation is a common strategy for M. hapla management, its efficacy is temporary and relies on broad-spectrum chemicals that undergo frequent regulatory scrutiny. The trap crop litchi tomato (Solanum sisymbriifolium) showed promise in reducing plant-parasitic nematode densities in potato. This prompted field greenhouse experiments to evaluate its potential to reduce M. hapla in V. vinifera.

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GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

Can grapevine tolerance to bunch rot be directly induced by groundcover management?

Botrytis bunch rot occurrence is the most important limitation for the wine industry in humid environments. The effect of grapevine vegetative growth on bunch rot expression results from direct effects (cluster architecture, nitrogen status among others) and indirect ones (via microclimate). Previous studies of our group showed strong differences in bunch rot incidence between floor management treatments: cover crop (CC) vs weed-free strips under the trellis with herbicide (H). We observed that in some circumstances this reduction in bunch rot incidence occurred without major vine growth differences among treatments. The aim of the present study was to test the general hypothesis that other factors unrelated to grapevine vegetative expression could be more relevant to grapevine susceptibility to bunch rot.

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GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

Reducing chemical use in vineyards. Evidence from the analysis of a national demonstration Network

High quantities of chemicals are applied in the vineyard for pest and disease control. Transition towards low pesticide viticulture is a key issue to improve sustainability. Winegrowers have to gradually change their practices to engage in this transition. This work aims at analysing the pesticide use evolution during transition towards low pesticide vineyards and identify some management options mobilized by winegrowers. To understand the diversity of pathways taken towards agroecological transition, we characterized different types of pesticide use evolution.

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GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

Fleurtai, Soreli and Tocai Friulano: perspectives for quality integration of wine together with protection of the DOCG Lison Classico appellation

In modern viticulture, sustainability must be considered not only into the winery, but in the vineyard as well, being that with the most attentive interventions in order to protect the environment. In this context, the new "fungi resistant" varieties represent a valid option for reducing the negative environmental impact of agrochemicals used in viticulture, including those ones used in organic farming (given the copper accumulation into soils). Several application studies have demonstrated the enological validity of many resistant varieties, both in price and as a blend. Also, under the production point of view, the feasibility and economical sustainability of the new resistant varieties was verified. The aim of this work was to deepen the knowledge on the organoleptic characteristics of wines obtained from the Fleurtai and Soreli varieties and to compare them with the wine obtained from Tocai Friulano, the mother variety in the area destined for the production of the Lison Classico DOCG appellation. The purpose of the work is then to verify the possibility of introducing resistant varieties into the DOCG while maintaining the wine name of the appellation linked to the territory.

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GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

Vineyard nutrient budget and sampling protocols

Vineyard nutrient management is crucial for reaching production-specific quality standards, yet timely evaluation of nutrient status remains challenging. The existing sampling protocol of collecting vine tissue (leaves and/or petioles) at bloom or veraison is time-consuming. Additionally, this sampling practice is too late for in-season fertilizer applications (e.g. N is applied well before bloom). Therefore alternative early-season protocols are necessary to predict the vine nutrient demand for the upcoming season. The main goals of this project are to 1) optimize existing tissue sampling protocols; 2) determine the amount of nutrients removed at the end of the growing season.

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GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

Rootstock regulation of scion phenotypes: the relationship between rootstock parentage and petiole mineral concentration

Grapevine is grown grafted in most of the world largely because of Phylloxera. Rootstocks not only provide tolerance to Phylloxera, but also ensure the supply of water and mineral nutrients to the scion. Rootstocks are an important means of adaptation to environmental conditions if we want to conserve the typical features of the currently used scion genotypes. To aid this adaptation, we can exploit the large diversity of rootstocks used worldwide. To fully explore this existing rootstock diversity, this work benefits from the unique GreffAdapt vineyard, in which four scion genotypes were studied onto 55 commercial rootstocks in three blocks. The aim of this study was to characterise rootstock regulation of scion mineral status and how it relates to scion development.

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GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

Implications of herbicide, cultivation or cover crop under-vine soil management on the belowground microbiote

Soil management through cover crops in the lines of the vineyards is a common practice in viticulture, since it improves the characteristics of the soil. It has been shown that the cover crops can influence the cycle of nutrients, promote infiltration, decrease erosion, and enhance the soil microbiota biodiversity improving the grapevines. However, the area under the vines tends to be left bare by applying herbicides or tillage to avoid competition with the crop in hot climates. The use of cover crops under the vines might be a plausible alternative to the use of herbicides or cultivation, improving grapevine quality and soil characteristics. The aim of this research was to study the implications of different management of the soil under the vines (herbicide, cultivation or cover crops) on grapevine growth, water and nutritional status and belowground microbial communities.

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GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

Effects of the biodynamic preparations 500 and 501 on vine and berry physiology, pedology and the soil microbiome

In the pursuit of increasing sustainability, climate change resiliency and independence of synthetic pesticides in agriculture, the interest of consumers and producers in organic and biodynamic farming is steadily increasing. This is in particular the case for the vitivinicultural industry in Europe, where more and more producers are converting from organic to biodynamic farming. However, clear scientific evidence showing that biodynamic farming improves vine physiology, vine stress resilience, berry or wine quality, or is more sustainable for the environment is still lacking although this issue has been addressed by several research teams worldwide.

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GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

Carry over effect of shoot trimming and deficit irrigation on fruit yield and berry total soluble solids

The increase in air temperature that is occurring in many important wine-growing areas around the world is resulting in the decoupling between the phenolic and the technological maturity of grapevine berries. This new ripening pattern leads to the production of light-bodied high alcoholic wines, but this is in countertendency with the increasing consumers’ demand for wines with low-to-mid alcohol concentrations. The oenological techniques proposed to reduce wine alcohol content are often very expensive and lead to detrimental effects on wine quality. Many viticultural practices have been proposed to slow down sugar accumulation the berry. One possible strategy that was previously found to be suitable for Aglianico grapevine is post-veraison shoot trimming. The aim of this work was to assess the carry over effects on the following year of shoot trimming and vine water status on yield and total soluble solids because the expected reduction in vine fertility could lead to a reduction in the effectiveness of shoot trimming.

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GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

Mechanization of pre-flowering leaf removal under the temperate-climate conditions of Switzerland

Grapevine leaf removal (LR) in the cluster area is typically done between fruit set and cluster closure to create an unfavorable microclimate for fungal diseases, such as Botrytis cinerea and powdery mildew. Grape growers are now turning their attention to pre-flowering LR, which has additional benefits under certain conditions. When applied before flowering, LR strongly affects fruit set and thus the number of berries per cluster. It is therefore a good yield control tool, replacing time-consuming manual cluster thinning (Poni et al. 2006). It also improves berry structure, that is, skin thickness, skin-to-pulp ratio, and berry composition (total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and polyphenols) (Palliotti et al. 2012; Komm and Moyer 2015). By exacerbating competition for assimilates between reproductive and vegetative organs, pre-flowering LR also poses some risks. Excessive yield loss at the same year's harvest due to a too low fruit set rate is the main concern: intensive pre-flowering LR (100% of the cluster area) can induce up to 50% yield loss in potted vines (Poni et al. 2005). Other parameters, such as cool climatic conditions during flowering, also affect fruit set rate and make it difficult to predict potential yield at harvest. Repeated and overly intensive preflowering LR can have repercussions over time and induce a decline in bud fruiting and plant vigor (Risco et al. 2014).

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GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

Mechanical fruit zone leaf removal and deficit irrigation practices interact to affect yield and fruit quality of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a hot climate

Cabernet Sauvignon is the top red wine cultivar in CA, however, the hot climate in Fresno is not ideal for Cabernet Sauvignon, particularly for berry color development. Fruit-zone leaf removal and irrigation were studied previously to have the significant effect on grape yield performance and berry quality. But the timing of leaf removal and the timing of irrigation are still inconclusive. Also, mechanical fruit-zone leaf removal is relatively new in CA. Our study aims to identify the interactive effect of mechanical fruit-zone leaf removal and irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon’s yield performance and fruit quality and find the ideal timing of leaf removal and irrigation to maximize the berry color while maintaining the sustainable yield level.

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GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

The use of elicitors in viticulture: a tool to obtain highly colored wines with a reduce alcohol content?

Climate change is causing a gap between the technological and phenolic maturity of grapes, resulting in wines with high alcohol content and low polyphenol concentration. Another phenomenon associated with high temperatures and whose effect is more pronounced if the harvest is delayed is the decrease in the acidity of the grapes, mainly in malic acid, and an increase in pH caused by the accumulation of potassium derived from the increase in temperature. Therefore, climate change and the effects it causes on the vine leads to unbalanced wines, with high alcohol content and lack of color, with green tannins, astringency and excessively low acidity if not corrected.

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GiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesTechnical sessions

Dynamic agrivoltaics, climate protection for grapevine driven by artificial intelligence

The year-on-year rise in temperatures and the increase in extreme weather events due to climate change are already having an impact on agriculture. Among the perennial fruit species, grapevine is already negatively impacted by these events through an acceleration of its phenology, more damage from late frosts or through an increase in the sugar level of the berries (and therefore the alcoholic degree of the wine) and a decrease of acidity, impacting the wine quality. Sun'Agri, in partnership with INRAE, Chambre d’agriculture du Vaucluse, Chambre d’agriculture des Pyrénées-Orientales and IFV, developed a protection system based on dynamic agrivoltaics to protect grapevine. It consists of photovoltaic solar panels positioned above the crop, high enough not to impede the passage of agricultural machinery, and tiltable from +/- 90° to adjust the level of shading on the vineyard. These smart louvers, driven by artificial intelligence (physical models & plant growth models), are steered according to the plant’s needs and provide real climate protection.

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