In contrast to fruit and grape berry ripening, the biological processes causing ripening disorders are often much less understood, although shriveling disorders of fruits are manifold and contribute to yield losses and reduced fruit quality worldwide. Shrinking berries are a common feature for all shriveling disorders in grapevine although their timing of appearance during the berry ripening process and their underlying induction processes distinct them from each other. The sugar accumulation disorder Berry Shrivel (BS) is characterized by a suppression of sugar accumulation short after veraison resulting in berries low in sugar content and anthocyanins in berry skins, while the organic acid content is similar. Recent studies analyzed the biochemical, morphological and molecular processes affected in BS berries and linked early changes to the period of ripening onset [1,2].
Evaluation of interception traps for capture of Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in vineyards varieties from Protected Denomination of Origin León
Xylotrechus arvicola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a pest in vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in the main Spain wine-producing regions with Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO). The action of the larvae, associated to the spreading of wood fungi, causes damage especially in important varieties of V. vinifera. X. arvicola females lay eggs concentrated in cracks or under the rhytidome in the wood vines, which allows the emerging larvae to get into the wood and make galleries inside the plant being then necessary to prune intensively or to pull up the bored plants (1). The objective of the study was to evaluate captures of X. arvicola insects in five varieties of V. vinifera in PDO León.
For sustainable viticulture, the substitution of chemical inputs with biocontrol products has become one of the most considered strategies. This strategy is based on elicitor-triggered immunity that requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in plant defense activation. Plant immune responses are triggered through the perception of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) which are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) at the plasma membrane.
High-throughput screening of physical-mechanical berry skin traits facilitates targeted selection of breeding material with resistance to Botrytis bunch rot and grape sunburn
The ongoing climate change implies an increasing mean air temperature, which is signified by weather extremes or sudden changes between drought and local heavy rainfalls. These changing conditions are especially challenging for the established grapevine varieties growing under cool climate conditions due to an increased risk for fungal diseases like downy mildew (DM) and Botrytis bunch rot (BBR) as well as for grape sunburn. To meet that demand, the scope of most grapevine breeding programs is the selection of mildew fungus-resistant and climatic adapted grapevines with balanced, healthy yield and outstanding wine quality.