As Vitis vinifera varieties are susceptible to fungal diseases, numerous chemical treatments are generally required to ensure the quantity and quality of the harvest. However, in the context of sustainable viticulture, there are increasing societal request, political incitation, and winegrowers’ awareness to reduce the use of pesticides.
Corvina berry morphology and grape composition as affected by two training system (Pergola and Guyot) in a context of climate change scenario
The Valpolicella area (Veneto Region, Italy) is famous for its high quality wines: Amarone and Recioto, both obtained from partial post-harvest dehydrated red grapes. The main cultivars used for these wines are Corvina and Corvinone. In this Region hundreds of years ago a particular training system (Pergola, cordon/cane with horizontal shoot-positioning) was developed. In the last 20 years the Guyot have been introduced in the area; now Pergola and Guyot are equally widespread in the Valpolicella area. In two different environmental conditions (hill and floodplain) two vineyards, one for each type of training system, were studied along two years (2011-2012).
The impact of vine nitrogen status on aroma potential expression in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc
In interaction with climate and genetic or human factors, the soil is a major component of the viticulture terroir. The mineral composition of the soil influences vine performance and wine sensory attributes. Among the elements that vines take from the soil, nitrogen is the one that has the strongest impact on vine physiology, vigor and grape composition. In addition to its major effect on primary metabolites in berries, nitrogen plays also a decisive role in the secondary metabolism, especially in the production of key compounds for berries quality, like volatile thiols, methoxypyrazines and glutathione (GSH).
Trunk diseases and esca in particular, represent a major threat to the sustainability of the vineyards. The percentages of unproductive vines in a plot could vary from 4% to over 20 % depending on local conditions and vintages.
In the context of global warming, water scarcity is becoming an increasing issue worldwide. However, the reference method to characterize vine water deficit is based on water potential measurement, which is a destructive and discontinuous method. The current climatic context emphasizes the need for more precise and more continuous vineyard water use measurements in order to optimize irrigation and vine water deficit monitoring.