Multivariate strategies for red wines classification using stilbenes and flavonols content

Bioactive polyphenols from grapes and wines, like stilbenes and flavonols (SaF), are often determined to nutritional evaluation, but also for many other purposes. The objective of this study was to quantify SaF in red wines from “Campanha Gaúcha”, a large and young viticultural region from South Brazil. Moreover, through statistical analysis, evaluate the influence of these compounds according to varieties, production process, harvest years and micro-regions of cultivation. A total of 58 samples of red wines were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) for determination of trans-resveratrol (R), quercetin (Q), myricetin (M), kaempferol (K), trans-e-viniferin (V) and their precursor, cinnamic acid (C).

Effect of post-harvest ozone treatments on the skin phenolic composition and extractability of red winegrapes cv Nebbiolo and Barbera

Wine industry is looking forward for innovative, safe and eco-friendly antimicrobial products allowing the reduction of chemical treatments in the grape defense and the winemaking process that can affect negatively the quality of the product. Ozone has been tested in food industry giving good results in preventing fungi and bacteria growth on a wide spectrum of vegetables and fruits, due to its oxidant activity and ability to attack numerous cellular constituents. Ozone leaves no chemical residues on the food surface, decomposing itself rapidly in oxygen. Gaseous ozone has been already tested for table grapes storage and on wine grapes during withering.

Comparison of fortified, sfursat and passito winemaking techniques for the enhancement of the oenological potential of the black grape cultivar Moscato nero d’Acqui (Vitis vinifera L.)

One of the key factors of the economical development of viticulture and wine industry in specific limited areas is the exploitation of ancient, local grape varieties. Therefore, in recent years the growing interest to rediscover minor varieties, previously cultivated, has promoted many studies. With this regard, the focus of this study was the Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato nero d’Acqui, nowadays found only in old vineyards in the Acqui zone (North-West Italy). In particular, the aims of this work were: i) to investigate secondary metabolites profile of the grapes, and ii) to evaluate the attitude to the production of special wines.

Correlations between N,S,O-heterocycle levels and age of Champagne base wines

Champagne regulation allows winegrowers to stock small amounts of still wines in order to compensate vintages’ quality shifts mainly due to climate variations. According to their technical requirements and house style some Champagne producers (commonly named “Champagne houses”) use these stored wines in the blend in order to introduce an element of complexity. These wines possess the particularity of being aged on fine lees in thermo-regulated stainless steel tanks. The Champagne house of Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin has several wines stored this way.

Characterization of commercial enological tannins and its effect on human saliva diffusion

Commercial oenological tannins (TECs) are widely used in the wine industry. TECs are rich in condensed tannins, hydrolyzable tannins or a mixture of both. Wine grapes are a important source of proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins while oak wood possess a high concentration of hydrolyzable tannins (Obreque-Slier et al., 2009). TECs contribute with the antioxidant capacity of wine, catalyze oxide-reduction reactions and participate in the removal of sulfur compounds and metals.

Determination of metallic elements in Chilean wines by atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry

The chemical composition of wines depends on series of variables such as the type of grape, edaphoclimatic conditions, and viticulture and winemaking practices employed during production. Metallic elements play a significant role during winemaking (e.g. as catalysts of oxidation reactions) and have been previously employed for the classification of wines according to provenance. In this work, we focused on the analysis of metallic elements (K, Na, Ca, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Cr, Al, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se, Co, Sn and As) in 145 Chilean wine samples (102 reds and 43 white wines), of seven grape varieties, and five of the major wine producing regions in Chile.

Oak wood seasoning: impact on oak wood chemical composition and sensory quality of wine

Oak wood selection and maturation are essential steps in the course of barrel fabrication. Given the existence of many factors involved in the choice of raw material and in natural seasoning of oak wood, it is very difficult to determine the real impact of seasoning and selection factors on oak wood composition. A sampling was done to study the evolution of oak wood chemical composition during four seasoning steps: non matured, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months. For this sampling, three selection factors were taken into account: age, grain type and the Polyphenolic Index measured by Oakscan®. Besides extractables
(~10%), three polymers constitute the main part of oak wood: cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignins.

New acylated flavonols identified in the grape skin of Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat and their wines

Flavonols are a class of flavonoid compounds derived from plant secondary metabolism. There they play different roles like antioxidants, internal regulators and UV screenings. In red wines, flavonols have increasingly received consideration by part of scientific and winemakers according their properties began to arise known. Among these stand out wine colour stabilization and their value as bioactive compounds. In this work the complete series of the acetylated and p-coumaroylated derivatives of the 3-O-glycosides of methoxylated flavonols, namely isorhamnetin, laricitrin and syringetin, have been identified in grapes and their respective wines from Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat.

Correlations between sensory characteristics and colloidal content in dry white wines

Must clarification is an important step occurring just after grape extraction in the elaboration of white wine, consisting in a solid-liquid separation. Traditionally, low must turbidity, around 50-150 NTU, is generally reached in white winemaking in order to prevent reductive aromas and facilitating alcoholic fermentation. Alternatively, a higher turbidity (300 NTU or above) can be sought for reasons such as a better expression of grapes identity (terroir), or for getting a must matrix that could supposedly lead to wines having greater ageing potential.

Effect of mixed Torulaspora delbrueckii-Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture on rose quality wine

Alcoholic fermentation using no Saccharomyces wine is an effective means of modulating wine aroma. This study investigated the impact of coinoculating Torulaspora delbruecki with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae commercial yeast (QA23, Lallemand; Red Fruit, Sepsa-Enartis) on enological quality parameters, volatile composition and sensory analysis. The following assays were performed on Tempranillo variety: Saccharomyces QA23 (CTQA), Saccharomyces Red Fruit (CTRF), coinoculated T. delbrueckii + S.cerevisiae QA23 (CIQA) and coinoculated T. delbrueckii + S.cerevisiae (CIRF).

Improving the phenolic composition of cv tempranillo wines by blending grapes of different ripening state

The aim of this work was to reduce the alcohol content of Tempranillo wine. Tempranillo wines were produced by grapes harvested at different ripening dates (August 11 which was 21 oBrix and September 28 with 25 oBrix). At the second date, the Tempranillo wines were elaborated as follows: grapes were destemmed, crushed and collected into 50 L stainless-steel vats. Before preferementative maceration in cold, 50 % (M1) and 70 % (M2) of the must have been replaced by the same percentage of must from the first harvest. In addition, a control wine (C) was performed with only grapes from the second harvest.

Novel contribution to the study of mouth-feel properties in wines

In general, there is a well-established lexicon related to wine aroma and taste properties; however mouth-feel-related vocabulary usually includes heterogeneous, multimodal and personalized terms. Gawel et al.
(2000) published a wheel related to mouthfeel properties of red wine. However, its use in scientific publications has been limited. The authors accepted that the approach had certain limitations as it included redundant and terms with hedonic tone and some others were absent. It is of high interest to generate a mouth-feel lexicon and finding the chemical compound or group of compounds responsible for such properties in red wine. In the present work a chemical fractionation method has been developed.

Fingerprinting the origin of rosé wines with a new high throughput polyphenomics method

Wine is a widely consumed alcoholic beverage with a high commercial value. More specifically, the worldwide consumption of rosé wine has increased by 20% since 2002[1]. But because of its high commercial value, it can become a subject of fraud, and authenticity control is necessarily required. More than one hundred polyphenols have been recently quantified in various rosé wines [2]. They are key components defining color, taste and quality of wines. Their amount and composition depend on many different factors such as grape variety, winemaking and age of the wine. In this study, the influence of geographic origin of some rosé French wines was investigated. An original and very fast UPLC-QTOF-MS method was developed and used to predict the geographic origin authenticity of rosé wines.

Identification of green, aggressive and hard character of wines by a chemo-sensory directed methodology

With climate change, it is progressively more often to obtain grapes with an acceptable content in sugars or acids but with immature tannins described as green, aggressive or hard (noted as GAH onwards). During winemaking, the oenologist has to make decisions related to the elaboration of such grapes based mainly on empirical experience, given the lack of objective criteria to this concern. An increase in the chemical and sensory knowledge of immature tannins would allow managing this GAH character of grapes with the maximum possible efficiency during winemaking processes. The present work aims at isolating and identifying the group of compounds responsible for the GAH character present in wines.

Phenolic profiles of minor red grape cultivars autochthonous from the Spanish region of La Mancha

The phenolic profiles of little known red grape cultivars, namely Garnacho, Moribel and Tinto Fragoso, which are autochthonous from the Spanish region of La Mancha (ca. 600,000 ha of vineyards) have been studied over the consecutive seasons of years 2013 and 2014. The study was separately performed over the skins, the pulp and the seeds, and comprised the following phenolic types: anthocyanins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCADs), total proanthocyanidins (PAs) and their structural features. The selected grape cultivars belong to the Vine Germplasm Bank created in this region in order to preserve the great diversity of genotypes grown in La Mancha.

Evidence for terroir effect associated with botrytisation relatively to compounds implicated in typical aromas of noble rot sweet wines

Recent studies have demonstrated the role of certain lactones, particularly 2-nonen-4-olide, and volatile thiols (3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol) in the over ripped aromas of noble rot sweet wines (Stamatopoulos et al. 2014ab). These compounds are partly formed during the maturation and under the activity of B. cinerea on grapes. This research was carried out in the vineyard of Sauternes with aim to better understand their genesis depending on the grape over-ripening on two different soil types during 3 vintages. Thus, the study was conducted, with the Sémillon grape, during vintages 2012, 2014 & 2015, at 4 stages of over-maturation of the grapes (healthy, pourri plein, pourri roti, pourri roti + 15 days) considering two vineyard plots with different soil characteristics (calcosol & peyrosol) planted with the 315 Sémillon clone and grafted on 101-14 rootstock respectively in 1981 and 1980 and cultivated with the same vineyard management. Volatile lactones were assayed by liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC/MS analysis and the precursors of 3-sulfanylhexanol by an adaptation of the method by Capone et al. 2010 (SPE-
UPLC/FTMS).

Impact of sulfur compounds to the antioxidant stability of white wines

The chemical mechanisms involved in oxidation/reduction potential of wine during winemaking and aging are affecting its color, aroma and taste. Chemical oxidation is one of the major causes of development of off-flavors during ageing1. Thus, the chemical changes in wine during storage should be controlled to ensure the sensory quality of the product and avoid consumer rejection that will compromise the economic value of the product. The 1-hydroxyethyl radical has been recognized as the key radical intermediate in the oxidative reactions in wine2. Based on the kinetic study of POBN-1-hydroxyethyl spin adduct formation in wines initiated via the Fenton reaction, a novel tool was recently developed in our laboratory to quantify the resistance of wines against oxidation3.

Proteomic and activity characterization of exocellular laccases from three Botrytis cinerea strains

Botrytis cinerea is a fungus that causes common infection in grapes and other fruits. In winemaking, its presence can be both considered desirable in the case of noble rot infection or undesirable when grey rot is developed. This fungus produces an extracellular enzyme known as laccase which is able to cause oxidation of phenolic compounds present in must and wine, causing most of the times a decrease in its quality and problems during the winemaking process [1]. Material and methods: Three B. cinerea strains (B0510, VA612 and RM344) were selected and grown in a liquid medium adapted from one previously described [2]. The enzyme was isolated by tangential ultrafiltration of the culture medium using a QuixStand system equipped with a 30 KDa filtration membrane.

Assessing the effect of oak derived aromas on mouthfeel perception in Chardonnay wine

Mouthfeel is an important quality parameter for Chardonnay wines, particularly those aged in oak. While research on mouthfeel has traditionally focused on the impact of non-aromatic compounds, the role of aroma compounds has largely been over looked. However, in wine as well as other food interactions between retronasal aroma and mouthfeel have been noted. The goal of this research was to investigate the impact of wine aroma on the perception of mouthfeel. Because of the importance of oak aging in the development of Chardonnay mouthfeel, the impact of oak aromas on perceived mouthfeel was explored. Aroma compounds associated with oak (ethyl palmitate, eugenol, furfural, isoeugenol, syringaldehyde, vanillin and whiskey lactone) were added to two different Chardonnay wines; one with no oak influence and one fermented in neutral oak. Low and high concentrations of the compounds were added based on concentrations typically found in barrel aged Chardonnay wine.

Quantification of red wine phenolics using ultraviolet-visible, near and mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics

The use of multivariate statistics to correlate chemical data to spectral information seems as a valid alternative for the quantification of red wine phenolics. The advantages of these techniques include simplicity and cost effectiveness together with the limited time of analysis required. Although many
publications on this subject are nowadays available in the literature most of them only reported feasibility
studies. In this study 400 samples from thirteen fermentations including five different cultivars plus 150
wine samples from a varying number of vintages were submitted to spectrophotometric and chromatographic phenolic analysis.