IVES Conference Series

IVES 9 Tag: IVES Conference Series

Impact of some agronomic practices on grape skins anthocyanin content

Wine colour is the first quality characteristic to be assessed, especially regarding red wines. Anthocyanins are very well known to be the main responsible compounds for red wine colour. Red cultivars can synthesize and accumulate anthocyanins in berry skin to express their colour. However, anthocyanin accumulation is often influenced by a series of factors, such as genetic regulation, phytohormones, environmental conditions and viticultural management.

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Characterization of Glycosidically Bound Aroma Compounds of País cv. grapes of different Chilean zones

Úbeda-Aguilera, C., a Callejón, R. M., b Peña-Neira, A c. a Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile b Área de Nutrición y Bromatología. Facultad de Farmacia. Universidad de Sevilla. C/ P. García González nº 2, E- 41012. Sevilla. Spain c Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile País grape has been estimated to arrive to Chile almost 500 years ago, being the first strain grown in this country. Traditionally, this grape has been used to mix with other varieties, to produce poor quality wines, but today is beginning to be used in the production of high quality wines. However, very little is known about the chemical characteristics of this variety.

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Ageing of Sauvignon Blanc white wines with Specific Inactivated Dry Yeasts: Effect on physical and chemical characteristics

Del Barrio-Galán, R.a, b, Gómez-Parrini, A.a, Peña-Neira, A.b a Lallemand Inc. Chile y Compañía Limitada, Rosario Norte 407, piso 6, Las condes, Santiago, Chile b Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile It is well known that polysaccharides, mainly mannoproteins, play an important role on physical, chemical and sensory quality of wines. The ageing of white wines on lees is used in order to release higher amounts of polysaccharides by the autolytic processes in order to obtain higher-quality wines. However, this technique is too slow, because the temperature and pH conditions are not the most suitable for this process. In addition, it can also involve certain disadvantages such as a greater demand on winery resources, a longer period of wine storage, the appearance of reduction notes and some microbiological alterations.

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Effect of ageing with Specific Inactivated Dry Yeasts on the volatile composition of Sauvignon Blanc and Carménère wines

Úbeda-Aguilera, C a, b, Peña-Neira, A.b Del Barrio-Galán, R.b, c a Biomedical Sciences Institute, Science Faculty, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile. b Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile c Lallemand Inc. Chile y Compañía Limitada, Rosario Norte 407, piso 6, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile The wine is a complex matrix made up of several compounds which can interact among themselves throughout the wine ageing process, thereby modifying their sensorial characteristics. It is well known that during ageing of wines on lees, polysaccharides (mainly mannoproteins) can be released and can interact with the aromatic fraction modifying its volatility.

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New molecular evidence of wine yeast-bacteria interaction unraveled by untargeted metabolomic profiling

Bacterial malolactic fermentation (MLF) has a considerable impact on wine quality. The yeast strain used for primary fermentation can consistently stimulate (MLF+ phenotype) or inhibit (MLF- phenotype) malolactic bacteria and the MLF process as a function of numerous winemaking practices, but the molecular evidence behind still remains a mystery. In this study, such evidence was elucidated by the direct comparison of extracellular metabolic profiles of MLF+ and MLF- yeast phenotypes. Untargeted metabolomics combining ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR-MS analysis, powerful machine learning methods and a comprehensive wine metabolite database, discovered around 800 putative biomarkers and 2500 unknown masses involved in phenotypic distinction.

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Fining-Derived Allergens in Wine: from Detection to Quantification

Since 2012, EU Commission approved compulsory labeling of wines treated with allergenic additives or processing aids “if their presence can be detected in the final product” (EU Commission Implementing Regulation No. 579/2012 of 29 June 2012). The list of potential allergens to be indicated on wine labels comprises sulphur dioxide and milk- and egg- derived fining agents, including hen egg lysozyme, which is usually added in wines as preservative. In some non-EU countries, the list includes gluten, tree nuts and fish gelatins. With the exception of lysozyme, all these fining proteins were long thought to be totally removed by subsequent winemaking processings (e.g. bentonite addition).

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Study of the volatil profile of minority white varieties

The genetic material preservation is a priority issue in winemaking research. The recovery of minority grape varieties can control the genetic erosion, contributing also to preserve wine typical characteristics. In D.O.Ca. Rioja (Spain) the number of grown white varieties has been very limited, representing Viura the 91% of the cultivated white grape area in 2005, while the others, Garnacha Blanca and Malvasía riojana, hardly were grown. For this reason, a recovery and characterization study of plant material was carried out in this region. In 2008, the results obtained allowed the authorization of three minority white varieties: Tempranillo Blanco, Maturana Blanca and Turruntés.

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Colour assessment of port wines using colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods

Colour is an important quality parameter in wines and is the result of a complex mixture of pigments
(including anthocyanins and their derivatives, quinones, xanthyllium compounds, etc.). Red wine colour changes over time as pigments react between themselves and with other wine macromolecules
(particularly polyphenols). During wine tasting, colour is normally assessed on the outer rim of the wine profile in a tilted glass, since most wines are too opaque to be analysed in the middle of the glass. Therefore, depending on the depth of observation considered, the perception of wine colour can be different.

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Merging fast sensory profiling with non-targeted GC-MS analysis for multifactorial experimental wine making

Wine aroma is influenced by several viticultural and oenological factors. In this study we used experimental wine making in a full factorial design to determine the impact of grapevine age, must turbidity, and yeast strain on the aroma of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Riesling wines. A recently developed, non-targeted SPME-GC-MS fingerprinting approach for wine volatiles was used. This approach includes the segmentation and mathematical transformation of chromatograms in combination with Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) and subsequent deconvolution of important chromatogram segments.

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Sensory definition of green aroma concept in red French wines. Evidence for the contribution of novel volatile markers

The aromatic complexity of a wine results from the perception of the association of volatile molecules and each aroma can be categorized into different families. The “green” aromas family in red wines has retained our attention by its close link with the fruity perception. In that study, the “green” olfactory concept of red wines was considered through a strategy combining both sensory analysis and hyphenated chromatographic techniques including HPLC and MDGC (Multidimensional Gas Chromatography). The aromatic space of this concept was specified by lexical generation through a free association task on 22 selected wines by a panel of wine experts. Then, 70 French red wines were scored on the basis of the intensity of their “green” and “fruity” attributes.

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Grape byproducts as source of resveratrol oligomers for the development of antifungal extracts

Grape canes are a non-recycled byproduct of wine industry (1-5 tons per hectare per year) containing valuable phytochemicals of medicine and agronomical interest. Resveratrol and wine polyphenols are known to exert a plethora of health-promoting effects including antioxidant capacity, cardioprotection, anticancer activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties (Guerrero et al. 2009). Additionally, resveratrol is a major phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses and promotes disease resistance (Chang et al. 2011). Our project aims to develop polyphenol-rich grape cane extracts to fight phytopathogenic or clinically relevant fungi. We initiate the project with the development of analytical methods to analyze resveratrol mono- and oligomers (dimers, trimers and tetramers) from grape canes and we evaluate their potential activity against clinically relevant opportunistic fungal pathogens (Houillé et al. 2014).

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Novel analytical technologies for wine fingerprinting in and beyond the laboratory

For characterization, sensory designing and authentication rapid analytical technologies have become available. Some, like Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry allow a rapid spectrum of the volatile compounds of wines. Combined with chemometrics wines can be characterized. The same approach can be used to calculate the results of virtual mixtures and allow formulation of constant quality blends. Other new techniques and portable devices based on spectroscopy allow measurements on production sites and in grocery stores, even for the smart consumer. We will present some examples of the application of these techniques for authentication of wines, both in the laboratory and on site.

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Enological evaluation of the attitude of the grapevine fumin to give varietal wines

Initiatives have been ongoing in recent years to safeguard biodiversity in the oenological sector via a process of enhancement of ancient varieties, under a pressure of a market strongly oriented towards production deriving from native vines of specific geographical zones. In that sense, Aosta Valley
(Italy) has raised the need to preserve and characterize its minority vine varieties which have the potentiality to give varietal wines. Fumin represents the 7% of the production of the region with 16 hectares of vineyards and 753 hectolitres of derived wine. Due to its large phenolic potential, strong astringency and deep colour, it has long been, and is still today, assembled or blended with other varieties as occurs, for example, for the Torrette.

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The influence of soil management practices on functional traits and biodiversity of weed communities in Swiss vineyards

Green cover in vine rows provides many ecological services, but can also negatively impact the crop, depending on the weed species. The composition of a vineyard weed community is influenced by many parameters. Ensuring an evolution of the vine row flora into a desired direction is therefore very complex. A key step towards this goal is to know which factors influence the establishment of the weed community and which types of communities are best suited for vineyards. In this study, we analysed the weed communities of several vineyards in the Lake Geneva region (379 botanical surveys on 117 plots), with the aim to highlight the links between soil management practices (chemical and mechanical weeding, mowing, mulching roll) and phytosociological profiles, biodiversity and selected functional traits (growth forms, life strategies, root depth). T

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Effect of nanofiltration on the chemical composition and wine quality

In Enology the conventional processes of filtration for clarification and stabilization are giving place to alternative membrane processes, including nanofiltration (NF). Furthermore, the increased alcohol content in wines recorded in recent years became an important issue for all the main wine producing countries. Among techniques available to the wine industry to reduce the ethanol content, NF is certainly one of the newest. This study is focused on the evaluation of NF influence on wine physical-chemical composition, including mineral content, which in accordance to our best knowledge is a novelty.

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On the losses of dissolved CO2 during champagne aging

A misconception lingers in the minds of some wine consumers that Champagne wines don’t age. It’s largely a myth, certainly as far as the best cuvees are concerned. Actually, during the so-called autolysis period of time (in the closed bottle, after the “prise de mousse”), complex chemical reactions take place when the wine remains in contact with the dead yeast cells, which progressively bring complex and very much sought-after aromas to champagne. Nevertheless, despite their remarkable impermeability to liquid and air, caps or natural cork stoppers used to cork the bottles are not 100% hermetic with regard to gas transfers. Gas species therefore very slowly diffuse through the cap or cork stopper, along their respective inverse partial pressure. After the “prise de mousse”, because the partial pressure of CO2 in the bottleneck reaches up to 6 bars (at 12 °C), gaseous CO2 progressively diffuse from the bottle to the ambient air
(where the partial pressure of gaseous CO2 is only of order of 0,0004 bar).

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On the losses of dissolved CO2 from laser-etched champagne glasses under standard tasting conditions

Under standard champagne tasting conditions, the complex interplay between the level of dissolved CO2 found in champagne, its temperature, the glass shape, and the bubbling rate, definitely impacts champagne tasting by modifying the neuro-physico-chemical mechanisms responsible for aroma release and flavor perception. Based on theoretical principles combining heterogeneous bubble nucleation, ascending bubble dynamics and mass transfer equations, a global model is proposed (depending on various parameters of both the wine and the glass itself), which quantitatively provides the progressive losses of dissolved CO2 from laser-etched champagne glasses.

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Sensory and nephelometric analysis of tannin fractions obtained by ultrafiltration of red wines

The assessment of red wine mouthfeel relies primarily on the sensory description of its tannic properties. This evaluation could be improved by gaining a better understanding of the physicochemical properties of these tannins. Hence, the objectives of the present study were threefold: (1) to gain an insight into the sensory properties of subpopulations of proanthocyanidic tannins of different molecular sizes obtained through several ultrafiltration steps, (2) to quantify the kinetics of haze formation of these proanthocyanidic tannins in a dynamic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) precipitation test, (3) to determine whether a correlation exists between the sensory and the precipitation data.

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