IVES Conference Series

IVES 9 Tag: IVES Conference Series

Application of Hyper Spectral Imaging for early detection of rachis browning in table grapes

Rachis browning is a common abiotic stress that occurs during postharvest storage, leading to a decrease in commercial value of table grapes and resulting in significant economic losses. Its early detection could enable the implementation of preventive strategies. In this report, we show the feasibility of a non-destructive early detection of browning based on Hyper Spectral Imaging (HSI). Furthermore, rachis samples were subjected to transcriptomic analysis to understand putative pathways causing differences in browning within varieties.

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Enhancing table grape production: addressing challenges and opportunities for sustainability and quality improvement

Table grapes, being consumed as fresh, raisins, and transformed products are among the most appreciated fruits worldwide. Its popularity is increasing also due to its organoleptic and nutritional qualities that meet the consumers’ interest in healthier foods. Recent data from International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV) revealed that table grape production has doubled in the last twenty years, and varietal availability has increased thanks to the several breeding programs.
To maintain the socio-economic impact of this sector, new challenges need to be addressed.

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Innovative approaches for fungicide resistance monitoring in precision management of grapevine downy mildew

Effective control with fungicides is essential to protect grapevine from downy mildew, a devastating disease caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola. Managing this disease faces challenges in maintaining fungicide efficacy as the number of modes of action decreases and the risk of fungicide resistance increases. Long-term measures should address strains resistant to multiple modes of action, that can be selected by the repeated use of single-site fungicides. For these reasons, a precision management of the disease, that considers the selection of the best fungicide schedule according to the sensitivity profile of the pathogen population, is needed.

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Oospore germination dynamics and disease forecasting model for a precision management of downy mildew 

Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is the most economically impactful disease affecting grapevines. This polycyclic pathogen triggers both primary and secondary infection cycles, resulting in significant yield losses when effective disease control measures are lacking. Over the winter, the pathogen survives by forming resting structures, the oospores, derived from sexual reproduction, which produce the inoculum for primary infections. To optimize grapevine downy mildew control and obtain the desired levels of production while minimizing chemical inputs, it is crucial to optimize the timeframe for fungicide application. Disease forecasting models are useful to identify the infection risk.

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Investigating water stress-related seasonal and spatial patterns and the possible links with juice and wine compositional parameters

The mapping of spatial variability in vineyards offers the potential to implement zonal management strategies with the aim to optimize economic benefits and increase sustainability by managing natural resources, such as water used for irrigation, more optimally. This study characterized the (natural) variability in plant water status in a commercial Cabernet Sauvignon block, using remote sensing techniques, and identified the impact of this variability on the yield, and juice and wine composition. From the field data collected over two growing seasons, we demonstrated that remote sensing techniques are a practical and powerful tool for mapping spatial variability within vineyard blocks.

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Exploring high throughput secondary trait phenomics to improve grapevine breeding

Modern grapevine breeding programs have overcome many challenges using genomic selection, which has allowed breeders to make targeted selections at earlier stages in the breeding process. However, the cost of genetic testing may present a burden for some programs, and markers often struggle to accurately predict quantitative traits. Recent advances in high throughput, high-dimensional data have provoked investigation into the use of high-dimensional phenomics as a low-cost addition to the grape breeder’s toolkit that may offer advantages in predicting quantitative traits. High-dimensional secondary trait (HDST) data has been employed in annual crops for prediction of agriculturally important traits such as yield.

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A novel dataset and deep learning object detection benchmark for grapevine pest surveillance

Flavescence dorée (FD) stands out as a significant grapevine disease with severe implications for vineyards. The American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus) serves as the primary vector, transmitting the pathogen that causes yield losses and elevated costs linked to uprooting and replanting. Another potential vector of FD is the mosaic leafhopper, Orientus ishidae, commonly found in agroecosystems. The current monitoring approach involves periodic human identification of chromotropic traps, a labor-intensive and time-consuming process.

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Application of satellite-derived vegetation indices for frost damage detection in grapevines

Wine grape production is increasingly vulnerable to freeze damage due to warming climates, milder winters, and unpredictable late spring frosts. Traditional methods for assessing frost damage in grapevines which combine fieldwork and meteorological data, are expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Remote sensing could offer a rapid, inexpensive way to detect frost damage at a regional scale. Remote sensing approaches were used to assess freeze damage in grapevines by evaluating satellite-derived vegetation indices (VIs) to understand the severity and spatial distribution of damage in several New York vineyards immediately after a frost event (May 17th-18th, 2023). PlanetScope 3m satellite images acquired before and after the freeze were used to map damage and measure changes in VIs for vineyards in the Finger Lakes region.

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Protection of genetic diversity: maintenance and developements of a grapevine genebank in Hungary

Among the items preserved in gene banks, the old standard and autochthonous varieties represent an increasing value, since these varieties may have properties to make their cultivation more effective under changing climatic conditions. The increasingly extreme weather is a huge challenge for the viticulture. Collectional varieties can also play important role in protection against pests and pathogens. A genebank ensures not only the preservation of rare varieties, but also gives the opportunity for more knowledge and research of these varieties.

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Learning from remote sensing data: a case study in the Trentino region 

Recent developments in satellite technology have yielded a substantial volume of data, providing a foundation for various machine learning approaches. These applications, utilizing extensive datasets, offer valuable insights into Earth’s conditions. Examples include climate change analysis, risk and damage assessment, water quality evaluation, and crop monitoring. Our study focuses on exploiting satellite thermal and multispectral imaging, and vegetation indexes, such as NDVI, in conjunction with ground truth information about soil type, land usage (forest, urban, crop cultivation), and irrigation water sources in the Trentino region in North-East of Italy.

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High throughput winter pruning weight estimation based on wood volume evaluation 

There is currently a real need to improve and speed-up phenotyping in experimental set-ups to increase the number of modalities studied. Accurate information acquisition on plant status with high-throughput capacity is the main appeal of on-board systems.
A proximal sensing camera for a proxy of winter pruning weight was tested. We estimated the shoot volume of the vine by image analysis using algorithms that integrate the local shoot section area estimate along the shoot skeleton obtained by a morphological distance transform.
The study was carried out on the GreffAdapt experimental vineyard in Guyot simple training and a canopy management using vertical trellising. The planting density is 6250 vines/ha with a row spacing of 1.6×1m. Five scions grafted onto 55 rootstocks are present and the combination rootstock×scion is different every five plants.

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Revisiting the effect of subsurface irrigation and partial rootzone drying on canopy size and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon using remote sensing techniques

Irrigation is an essential tool for grape production, especially where rainfall does not meet the optimal water requirements needed to achieve yield and quality targets. Increased evaporative demand of grapevines due to changing climate conditions, and a growing awareness for sustainable farming, require the improvement of irrigation techniques to maximize water use efficiency, i.e. using less water to achieve the same yields or the same water but larger yields. In this study, the performance of Cabernet Sauvignon vines was compared under three irrigation techniques: conventional aboveground drip irrigation, subsurface irrigation installed directly under the vine row, and partial rootzone drying in which two subsurface lines were buried in the middle of the two interrow spacings on each side of the vine row with irrigation alternated between the two lines based on soil moisture content.

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Rootstock x environment interaction shapes shoot system phenotypic variation in grafted ‘Chambourcin’

Recent advances in phenomics and transcriptomics have the enhanced capacity for understanding how clonally propagated perennial crops like grapevines respond to their environments seasonally and over the course of multiple years. Because most grapevines are grafted, above-ground grapevine traits reflect scion genotype and its interaction with the local environment. In addition, traits expressed by the scion reflect rootstock genotype and how that rootstock is interacting with its environment seasonally and across years. To investigate rootstock x environment interaction on shoot systems in grafted grapevines we characterized comprehensive phenotypic variation in an experimental vineyard in Mount Vernon, Missouri, USA where the grapevine cultivar ‘Chambourcin’ is growing on its own roots and is grafted to three different rootstocks (‘1103P’, ‘3309C’, ‘SO4’).

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Hyperspectral imaging and machine learning for monitoring grapevine physiology

Rootstocks are gaining importance in viticulture as a strategy to combat abiotic challenges, as well as enhancing scion physiology and attributes. Therefore, understanding how the rootstock affects photosynthesis is insightful for genetic improvement of either genotype in the grafted grapevines. Photosynthetic parameters such as maximum rate of carboxylation of RuBP (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport driving RuBP regeneration (Jmax) have been identified as ideal targets for breeding and genetic studies. However, techniques used to directly measure these photosynthetic parameters are limited to the single leaf level and are time-consuming measurements.

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Physical-mechanical berry skin traits as powerful indicators of resistance to botrytis bunch rot

The ongoing climate change results in increasing mean air temperature, which is manifested by weather extremes or sudden changes between drought and local heavy rainfalls. These changing conditions are especially challenging for the established grapevine varieties growing under cool climate conditions due to an increased biotic infection pressure. Thus, the scope of most grapevine breeding programs is the selection of mildew fungus-resistant and climatic adapted grapevines with balanced, healthy yield and outstanding wine quality. Since no resistances or candidate genes have yet been described for Botrytis bunch rot (BBR), physical-mechanical traits like berry size and thick, impermeable berry cuticles phenotyped with high-throughput sensors represent novel effective parameters to predict BBR.

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Exploring zoxamide sensitivity in Plasmopara viticola populations: implications for fungicide management in precision agriculture

Fungicides play a critical role in managing grapevine downy mildew caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, a biotrophic and polycyclic pathogen with a high risk of fungicide resistance. Zoxamide, categorized as a low to medium resistance risk, disrupts cell division by inhibiting tubulin polymerization. Resistance to zoxamide is uncommon in field isolates. This six-year study (2017-2022) aimed to detect and quantify zoxamide sensitivity in P. viticola populations across varying resistance pressures in Italian grapevine regions. Analysis of 126 samples from 57 vineyards, mainly in North-Eastern Italy, revealed that most samples exhibited EC50, EC95, and MIC values below 0.1 and 10 mg/L of zoxamide, respectively. Nineteen vineyards showed reduced sensitivity (MIC>100 mg/L), but only four samples were characterized by 24-54% resistant oospores at >100 mg/L of zoxamide.

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Implementing VIS-NIR spectroscopy as a rapid and non-intrusive technique for assessing anthocyanin and phenolic concentrations in Vitis vinifera L. Grenache whole grape berries

Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds play a crucial role in winemaking, contributing to the profile, flavor, color, texture, and stability of wine. Grape clusters, specifically Vitis vinifera L. cv. Grenache, were handpicked from a commercial vineyard sited in Tudelilla, La Rioja, Spain (42°18′ 52.26″, Long. -2°7′ 59.15″, Alt. 582 m) on five distinct dates from veraison to harvest during the 2015 season. Non-contact spectral measurements were conducted on intact grape berries using a VIS-NIR spectrometer operating in the 570 – 1000 nm spectral range under controlled laboratory conditions, positioned at a distance of 25 cm from the berries. The quantification of 16 anthocyanins and phenols in 120 grape clusters was performed using HPLC, established as the reference method for validating the spectral tool.

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Characterization of bunch compactness and identification of associated genes in a diverse collection of cultivars of Vitis vinifera L.

Compactness is a complex trait of V. vinifera L. and is defined ultimately by the portion of free space within the bunch which is not occupied by the berries. A high degree of compactness results in poor ventilation and consequently a higher susceptibility to fungal diseases, diminishing the quality of the fruit. The easiness to conceptualize the trait and its importance arguably contrasts with the difficulty to measure and quantify it. However, recent technical advancements have allowed to study this attribute more accurately over the last decade. Our main objective was to explore the underlying genetics determining bunch compactness by applying updated phenotyping methods in a collection of V. vinifera L. cultivars with a wide genetic diversity.

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