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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 The evolution of the concept of geographical denomination in South America

The evolution of the concept of geographical denomination in South America

Abstract

Vers la fin du XX siècle, la vitiviniculture argentine a subi une profonde transformation qualitative atteignant toute la filière. L’analyse de l’évolution de la superficie des vignobles, l’élaboration des vins, la consommation et les exportations, permet de mettre en évidence ces changements. Dans ce contexte, l’origine apparaît comme un outil de force, d’expansion et de succès sur les marchés.
Par rapport aux aires de production viticole, il y a certains antécédents de zonage, résultant de l’étude d’un ensemble de facteurs empiriques et historiques qui ont permis de délimiter les régions dans lesquelles la vitiviniculture argentine s’est développée. Ces régions comprennent une longue bande Nord-Sud, à pente variable, située à l’Ouest du pays, au pied de la Cordillère des Andes, qui jointe à la topographie des vallées, présentent de grandes variations écologiques. Ces caractéristiques ainsi que la diversité de sols, permettent de définir trois régions: Nord­Ouest, Centre-Ouest et Sud, divisées à leur tour en sous-régions.
D’autres études plus restreintes visant à délimiter certaines aires déterminées ont été réalisées: Lujan de Cuyo, Valle de Uco, San Rafael, Maipu de la Province de Mendoza et Valle de Famatina dans la Province de La Rioja. Ces études analysent des facteurs naturels: géologiques et pédologiques, climatiques, des aspects associés au paysage et d’autres facteurs contribuant à caractériser le milieu, par le type de travail agronomique et par le comportement des différentes variétés.
Malgré les antécédents précédents, la notion d’origine est assez récente en Argentine et elle est conçue à partir des engagements pris au niveau international par rapport à la protection des indications géographiques (ADPIC, OMC) pour les vins et les boissons spiritueuses d’origine vitivinicole. C’est ainsi que, en 1999, la Loi N° 25.163 établit un système de reconnaissance, de protection et d’enregistrement des noms géographiques argentins pour la désignation des vins et des boissons spiritueuses d’origine vitivinicole, dont les qualités et les caractéristiques peuvent être attribuées à leur origine géographique.
Cette Loi distingue trois catégories de désignations: l’Indication de Provenance, l’Indication Géographique et l’Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée, pour lesquelles on établit les conditions pour pouvoir avoir droit à leur emploi. L’Instituto Nacional de Vitivinicultura en est l’autorité d’application.
Par rapport au concept d’appellation d’origine dans d’autres pays de l’Amérique du Sud, il y a des antécédents au Chili, au Brésil, en Bolivie, pour lesquels seront présentés les principes généraux.

 By the end of the 20th century, Argentine winemaking industry went through a deep qualitative transformation involving its whole chain of production. A survey on the evolution of vineyard­-planted area, winemaking practices, consumption levels and export figures all attest to such changes. Within that context, the geographical origin of wine appears as an instrument of strength, expansion and success in the markets.
As regards the areas of wine production, there exists some background about zoning, which results from the analysis of a set of empirical and historical aspects that have made it possible to delimit the regions within which Argentine winemaking has been developed. These regions lie on a wide north-south stretch, with variable slope, on the west of the country, at the foot of the Andes Range. Combined with the topography of the valleys, this location provides significant ecological variations. These features, plus the diversity of soils, make it possible to differentiate three main regions: Northwest, Centre-West and South, each one in turn divided into sub­regions.
In addition, more restricted studies have been conducted to define some specific areas: Lujan de Cuyo, Uco Valley, San Rafael and Maipu in the province of Mendoza, and the Famatina Valley in the province of La Rioja. These studies analyze natural factors, geological and pedological, climatic, landscape and still other factors contributing to a characterization of the environment through the determination of agricultural management and the behavior of different stock varieties.
However, despite the previous referential aspects, the notion of origin starts to be consolidated in Argentina as a result of international agreements related to the protection of geographical denominations or indications (ADPIC, WTO) for wines and wine-based spirits. It is thus that in 1999, Act of Congress 25.163 is passed establishing a system of recognition, protection and register of Argentine geographical denominations to identify wines and wine-based spirits whose qualities and characteristics may be attributed to their geographical origin.
This Act distinguishes three categories of appellation: Origin Indication, Geographical Denomination and D.O.C. (controlled denomination of origin), for which the compliance requisites and right of use are laid out. The regulating body is the Argentine Wine Institute.
In relation to the concept of geographical denomination in other South American countries, there are antecedents in Chile, Brazil and Bolivia, whose general regulating principles will be pres
ented here.

DOI:

Publication date: February 16, 2022

Issue: Terroir 2002 

Type: Article

Authors

Virginia Biaiñ de Martínez

Instituto Nacional de Vitivinicultura
San Martin 430 (5500) MENDOZA, ARGENTINA

Contact the author

Keywords

vitiviniculture, origine, vigne, vin, aire de production, délimitation, sol, climat

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2002

Citation

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