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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 From local classification to regional zoning. The use of a geographic information system (GIS) in Franconia / Germany. Part 3: classification of soil parameters in vineyards

From local classification to regional zoning. The use of a geographic information system (GIS) in Franconia / Germany. Part 3: classification of soil parameters in vineyards

Abstract

La conservation de la fertilité du sol est un aspect primordial dans la viticulture durable. Différents paramètres, comme par exemple la topographie, la composition du sol, les conditions climatiques, influencent la fertilité du sol des surfaces viticoes. En ce qui concerne ces paramètres, de nouvelles technologies, telle qu’un SIG, permettent de réunir digitalement les informations sur le sol et le climat. Une représentation cartographique sur un SIG permet l’analyse de contextes complexes, une classification locale et la détermination d’un zonage régional. L’ensemble de ces informations améliore la recherche et simplifie la gestion des surfaces viticoles. Environ 20 % des surfaces viticoles franconiennes se situent sur des pentes escarpées. Ici, la protection du sol est essentielle à la conservation de sa fertilité. De nombreux paramètre du sol, comme sa texture, sa composition, sa teneur en éléments grossiers, l’épaisseur des horizons, le type du paillage, sont saisis dans le SIG. Ensuite, un zonage régional peut être effectué grâce à des types et des groupes de sol permettant par exemple des évaluations régionales de la capacité de stockage de l’eau. L’inclination, l’exposition, la longueur et la forme des surfaces viticoles ainsi que la direction d’écoulement des eaux de surface peuvent être déterminés par une modélisation de terrain en trois dimensions. Combinant les données pluviométriques ce système d’information permet la création de cartes régionales et locales sur le danger d’érosion dans les régions viticoles. Grâce aux paramètres du sol et autres données saisies dans le SIG, comme par exemple les informations sur les précipitations ou la végétation, il est possible d’évaluer quantitativement le déblayage annuel sur les terroirs utilisant le modèle d’érosion PC-ABAG (équivalent de l’USLE = Universal Soif Lass Equation). Grâce à cela on peut classifier le potentiel érosif sur des pentes escarpées à l’aide de cartes du danger d’érosion générées par le SIG et mener une évaluation quantitative du déblayage dans ces terroirs. Ceci permet une planification des mesures de protection contre l’érosion. Pour cette raison, le SIG en viticulture est un excellent instrument de travail pour les chercheurs et conseillers, et les producteurs de raisins en vue de l’analyse, l’enregistrement et l’évaluation des paramètres du sol et du danger d’érosion dans des surfaces viticoles.

The conservation of soil fertility is the first objective in sustainable viticulture. Various parameters as e.g. slope and exposition of vineyards, soil composition, climatic conditions (precipitation), etc. influence the soil fertility of vineyard sites. Considering these parameters, new computer software such as a GIS enables the digital compilation of information on soil and climate. GIS-mapping allows the analysis of complex correlations, creation of local classifications and the establishment of a regional zoning. The synoptical compilation of information by a GIS improves the research and simplifies vineyard management.
About 20 % of the Franconian vineyards are planted on steep slopes. Here, soil conservation is important to preserve soil fertility. Many local soil parameters as type, composition and rock content, thickness of the soil horizon, type of soil covering, etc. are recorded in the GIS. Subsequently, a regional zoning of soil types and groups can be created with help of the GIS.

Besides that, slope, orientation, length and shape of vineyards are deterrnined by a three­dimensional terrain modelling with the GIS. Connected with precipitation data, this enables the generation of local and regional erosion risk maps of viticultural regions. Soil and topographie parameters combined with other data recorded in the GIS, e.g. information on precipitation, type of vineyard (productive/new) and vegetation, allow a quantitative estimation of the average soil erosion per year within vineyards by using the erosion model PC-ABAG (equivalent to the USLE = Universal Sail Lass Equation). Thus, the erosion risk potential of steep slopes can be classified regionally with the help of GIS-generated erosion risk maps and the local quantitative estimation of soil erosion within individual vineyards. This allows planning of erosion protection measures. Therefore, the viticultural GIS is an excellent aid to researchers arid consultants, grape producers and wine growing estates for recording, analysing and assessing soil parameters and erosion risk in vineyards.

 

 

 

DOI:

Publication date: February 16, 2022

Issue: Terroir 2002 

Type: Article

Authors

A. Schwab; S. Königer; S. Michel

Bayerische Landesanstalt für Weinbau und Gartenbau, Abt. Weinbau und Rebenzüchtung, Hermstr. 8, D-97209 Veitshochheim, Germany

Contact the author

Keywords

zonage régional, SIG, sol, fertilité, danger d’érosion
regional zoning, GIS, soil, fertility, erosion risk

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2002

Citation

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