Terroir 1996 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Effects of water and nitrogen uptake, and soil temperature, on vine development, berry ripening and wine quality of Cabernet-Sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Merlot (Saint-Emilion, 1997)

Effects of water and nitrogen uptake, and soil temperature, on vine development, berry ripening and wine quality of Cabernet-Sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Merlot (Saint-Emilion, 1997)

Abstract

Wine quality depends largely on berry ripening conditions in relation to soil and climat. The influence of the soil has been studied in Bordeaux since the early Seventies (SEGUIN, 1970; DUTEAU et al., 1981; VAN LEEUWEN, 1991; VAN LEEUWEN et SEGUIN, 1994) and, more recently, in the Val de Loire (MORLAT, 1989), the Alsace (LEBON, 1993) and the Costières de Nîmes regions (MARTIN, 1995). Its influence is complexe, because both physical (soil temperature, water uptake) and chemical (nitrogen uptake) soil parameters interfere on vine development and berry ripening.
Vine development, berry ripening and wine quality were studied in Saint-Emilion (Bordeaux area, France), in 1997, in relation to three different soil types:
– G: Gravelly soil
– S: Sandy soil, with a water table in reach of the roots
– C: Heavy clay soil
Three cultivars were compared, Vitis vinifera Cabernet-Sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Merlot. Water uptake, nitrogen uptake and soil temperature were measured to explain the different vine expressions on the nine plots (3 soils x 3 cultivars).

DOI:

Publication date: March 2, 2022

Issue: Terroir 1998

Type: Article

Authors

CORNELIS VAN LEEUWEN

ENITA de Bordeaux/ Faculté d’Œnologie de Bordeaux
1, Cours du Général de Gaulle 33175, Gradignan

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Terroir 1998

Citation

Related articles…

Rootstock effects on cv. Ugni blanc berry and wine composition

In the Cognac region in France, Ugni blanc is the most planted grape variety (98% of the 80 500 ha). This vine region is in expansion due to the success of the associated well-known brandy and the need of high grape yield to guarrantee the production of base wine for distillation. About 2 to 3000 ha are newly planted each year and rootstocks are one powerfull tool for vineyard adaptation to soil or climate change. As rootstocks ensure water and mineral nutrient supplies to the scion, it is important to better understand their effect on berry compostionnal parameters such as sugars and nitrogen compounds, which are the main precursors for fermentary aroma metabolites, the latter being quality markers for Cognac after distillation.

Beyond colors of rosé wines: impact of origin and winemaking technology on their color, polyphenol and thiol compositions

Rosé wine consumption is rapidly increasing with its market share in France that has grown from 11 % to 32 % in less than 20 years. A recent trend is also to produce rosé wines with lighter colors. Varieties, terroir and technology certainly have an influence on rosé wine colors.

Synthesis of the contribution of the Giesco (group of international experts of vitivinicultural systems for cooperation) to the study of terroirs

Since 1998, the GiESCO (previously named GESCO: Groupe d’Etude des Systèmes de COnduite de la vigne) has provided the scientific community with relevant contributions to the study of terroirs. Here is a synthesis of the main terroir-related fields and the major ideas the GiESCO has developed: Basic Terroir Unit and climate, Vine Ecophysiology and microclimate – moderate drought, Vineyard heterogeneity and new technologies, Viticultural Terroir Unit and canopy management, Terroir – Territory and man.

Under-vine management effects on grapevine production, soil properties and plant communities in South Australia

Under-vine (UV) management has traditionally consisted of synthetic herbicide use to limit competition between weeds and grapevines. With growing global interest towards non-synthetic chemical use, this study aimed to capture the effects of alternative UV management at two commercial Shiraz vineyards in South Australia, where the sole management variables were UV management since 2016. In adjacent treatment blocks, cultivation (CU) was compared to spontaneous vegetation (SV) in McLaren Vale (MV), and herbicide was compared to SV in Eden Valley (EV). Soil water infiltration rates were slower and grapevine stem water potential was lower in CU compared to SV in MV, with the latter having a plant community dominated by soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae) during winter; while in EV, there was little separation between the treatments. Yields were affected at both sites, with SV being higher in MV and HE being higher in EV. In MV, the only effect on grape must was a lower 13C:12C isotope ratio in CU, indicating greater grapevine water stress. In the grape must at EV, SV had higher total soluble solids, total phenolics, anthocyanins, and yeast available nitrogen; and lower pH and titratable acidity. Pruning weights were not affected by the treatments in MV, while they were higher in HE at EV. Assessments revealed that the differing soil types at the two sites were likely the main determinants of the opposing production outcomes associated with UV management. In the silty loam soil of MV, the higher yields in SV were likely due to more plant-available water, as a potential result of the continuous soil bio-pores formed by winter UV vegetation. Conversely, in the loamy sand soils of EV with a lower cation exchange capacity, the lower yields and pruning weights in SV suggest the UV vegetation competed significantly with the grapevines for available water and nutrients.

Entomopathogenic nematodes application for controlling Lobesia botrana in grapevine and their impact on grapevine quality 

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are well-known biological control agents combined with specific adjuvants that now allow their use against aerial pests. Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is one of the major harmful pests detected in worldwide vineyards. Previous studies demonstrated that the EPNs Steinernema feltiae and S. carpocapsae could control L. botrana. The hypothesis was that the best combination of EPN-adjuvant/timing (season/temperatures) will support the use of EPN in the vineyard against L. botrana with no impact on the grape performance.