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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Concorrenza, qualità, zonazione. Una valutazione economica della relazione tra politiche, regole e strumenti di gestione dei prodotti del territorio

Concorrenza, qualità, zonazione. Una valutazione economica della relazione tra politiche, regole e strumenti di gestione dei prodotti del territorio


[English version below]

In questa nota viene analizzata l’importanza della conoscenza del territorio nel funzionamento del mercato dei prodotti alimentari di qualità e nella gestione delle denominazioni di origine.
La denominazione di origine si sta affermando in tutti i mercati alimentari, dopo l’esperienza secolare maturata nel mercato del vino. Iniziative nel campo del turismo, delle produzioni ecologiche, della promozione dello sviluppo, sono collegate alla dimensione territoriale, in risposta ad un generale orientamento della domanda. La conoscenza del territorio è lo strumento fondamentale per la differenziazione orizzontale e verticale in molte province in cui la densità delle denominazioni e delle tipologie di prodotti è ormai elevata.
La diffusione delle Denominazioni di origine sta avvenendo insieme alla affermazione di regole sempre più rigorose per la concorrenza. I responsabili delle denominazioni devono fare sempre riferimento ad espliciti aspetti di qualità nella limitazione dei territori e delle imprese ammesse alla produzione. Il controllo dell’offerta nei mercati agricoli, allo scopo di ridurre le eccedenze, se non è legato alla analisi qualitativa delle potenzialità del territorio genera effetti redistributivi negativi e rischia di essere inefficace.
Infine, l’agricoltura è al centro dell’attenzione come produttrice di esternalità positive e negative. Queste esternalità sono strettamente legate alle potenzialità di produzione di qualità e quindi l’analisi delle caratteristiche del territorio territorio permette di analizzare anche la distribuzione dei benefici o dei costi delle esternalità.

In this note the role of territory knowledge offered by the zoning approach is analyzed, in relation to quality foods market efficiency to the management of protected designation of specific origin. The first relevant source of demand for territory analysis is the spread at European level and in all food markets of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). Other sources are new products development in the tourism sector, in the organic foods markets, and others. Further sources of demand of territory analysis can be observed in policy making, particularly public interventions for local development like the LEADER program.
A sound knowledge of territory is the basis for horizontal and vertical product differentiation in all cases of strong product differentiation, like that of quality food markets. In the management of PDO product supply, antitrust rules at national and European level, force product managers to work mainly on the territorial analysis instead of quantity controls to control quality.
In the European Common Market Organization for agricultural products, it has been proved that quantity controls which are not well linked to the analysis of product and territory of production can lead to negative welfare effects at producers and consumers level, and also for taxpayers.
In developed countries it is demanded from agriculture to produce positive externalities together with food products. This production is more and more requested and in some cases directly compensated through monetary payments. Only territory analysis can offer a correct knowledge of spatial and individual distribution of these externalities and a correct public policy design.


Publication date: March 2, 2022

Issue: Terroir 1998

Type: Article



Università della Basilicata Via N. Sauro 85, 85100 Potenza


IVES Conference Series | Terroir 1998


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