Aroma compounds involved in the fruity notes of red wines potentially adapted to climate change.

Currently, climate change represents one of the major issues for the wine sector. The increasing temperature already recorded and expected in the upcoming years reduce the vegetative cycle of the grape varieties planted in Bordeaux area, affecting the physicochemical parameters of grapes and consequently, the quality of wine. From a sensory point of view, the attenuation of the fresh fruity character in some varietals is accompanied by the accentuation of dried-fruit notes [1]. As a new adaptive and ecological strategy on global warming, some winegrowers have initiated changes in the Bordeaux blend of vine varieties using late-ripening grape varieties [2]. 

This study intends to explore the fruitiness in wines produced from grape varieties adapted to the future climate of Bordeaux. 10 commercial single–varietal wines from 2018 vintage made from the main grape varieties in the Bordeaux region (Cabernet franc, Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot) as well as from indigenous grape varieties from the Mediterranean basin, such as Cyprus (Yiannoudin), France (Syrah), Greece (Agiorgitiko and Xinomavro), Portugal (Touriga Nacional) and Spain (Garnacha and Tempranillo), were selected among 19 samples using sensory descriptive analyses. 

Both sensory and instrumental analyses were coupled, to investigate their fruity aroma expression. For sensory analysis, samples were prepared from wine, using a semi preparative HPLC method which preserves wine aroma and isolates fruity characteristics in 25 specific fractions [3,4]. Fractions of interest with intense fruity aromas were sensorially selected for each wine by a trained panel and mixed with ethanol and microfiltered water to obtain fruity aromatic reconstitutions (FAR) [5]. A free sorting task was applied to categorize FAR according to their similarities or dissimilarities, and different clusters were highlighted. Instrumental analysis of the different FAR and wines demonstrated variations in their molecular composition. 

Results obtained from sensory and gas chromatography analysis enrich the knowledge of the fruity expression of red wines from “new” grape varieties opening up new perspectives in wine technology, including blending, thus providing new tools for producers.

[1] Pons, A. et al. (2017)
[2] Van Leeuwen, C. et al. (2019)
[3] Ferreira, V. et al. (1999)
[4] Pineau, B. (2007)
[5] Lytra, G. (2012)

Presenting author: Justine Garbay – PhD student in Oenology – Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin

Additionnal authors: Margaux Cameleyre | Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, Nicolas Le Menn | Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, Jean-Christophe Barbe | Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, Georgia Lytra | Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin 


Keywords: aromatic compounds – climate change – fruity notes – late-ripening varieties – red wine

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