WAC 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 WAC 9 WAC 2022 9 3 - WAC - Oral 9 Enhanced polyphenol extraction during Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon wine making

Enhanced polyphenol extraction during Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon wine making


The quality of red wine depends on the composition of polyphenols influencing wine color and taste. The question is, how much we must fear over extraction, especially of seed tannins, under cool climate conditions. The extraction of polyphenols from grape skins and grape seeds were investigated for the grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir. The experimental setup included seed removal, milling the seeds or the cap and returning them back, crushing the whole grapes prior fermentation, acidification of must as well as different techniques for the cap management. In 2018 as well as in 2019 the adaption of the enology in terms of maceration time, chaptalization and deacidification, depending on harvest time had been investigated. Photometric assays were used to determine total phenols, tannins and polymeric pigments. Anthocyanins and monomeric phenols were analyzed by HPLC-DAD/FD. Flavan-3-ol dimers and trimers as well as corresponding gallates were quantified by LC-QToF-MS. After bottling, descriptive sensory analysis was performed. The results showed that after seed removal, total phenolics and color intensity decreased. Crushing the seeds significantly increased total phenols, tannins, gallic acid and, for Pinot noir, also Large Polymeric Pigments. Additionally, a darker wine color was observed, indicating the importance of seed polyphenols for color stability. Acidification of must significantly contributed to wine color due to Small Polymeric Pigments, which were most likely formed by enhanced protonation of acetaldehyde, stimulating the formation of ethylidene-linked structures. Furthermore, catechin-catechin-gallate concentration was significantly increased due to acidification. This dimer may be released by the acid-catalyzed cleavage of interflavan bonds of higher molecular weight procyanidins. The sensory attributes color intensity, astringency, dry tannins and bitterness were the differentiating factors among the treatments. Crushing the seeds or the cap lead to the higher perception of phenol related in mouth modalities. The acidification of must leads to a significantly darker wine color while wines with seed removal lack in color and phenolic structure. Regarding time point of harvesting and technological maturity it seems the classical adjustment by means of sugar concentration is not able to simulate phenolic ripeness.


Publication date: June 13, 2022

Issue: WAC 2022

Type: Article


Pascal, Wegmann-Herr, Dominik, Durner, Germany, Sandra, Feifel, Fabian, Weber

Presenting author

Pascal, Wegmann-Herr – Institute for Viticulture and Enology (DLR-Rheinpfalz), Breitenweg 71, 67435 Neustadt, Germany

Institute for Viticulture and Enology (DLR-Rheinpfalz), Breitenweg 71, 67435 Neustadt, Germany | Institute for Viticulture and Enology (DLR-Rheinpfalz), Breitenweg 71, 67435 Neustadt, Germany | University of Bonn, Institute for Food Technology, Germany

Contact the author


Phenols, Sensory, Extraction, Maturity, Red Varieties


IVES Conference Series | WAC 2022


Related articles…

Saccharomyces cerevisiae – Oenococcus oeni – Lactiplantibacillus plantarum: focus on malolactic fermentation during production of Catarratto and Riesling white wines

The increasing interest in enhancing groundbreaking sensory profile of wines determined the need to select novel strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Metabolic processes characterizing malolactic fermentation (MLF) lead to the production of several organic compounds that significantly impact the oenological and sensory characteristics of wines.

Is it possible to approximate the technological and phenolic maturity of grapes by foliar application of elicitors?

The increase in the temperature and the more severe water stress conditions, trends observed in recent years as a consequence of climate change, are leading a mismatch between the technological and phenolic maturity of grapes

Climate influence on the grapevine phenology and anthocyanins content in wines from the Skopje vineyard area, Republic of Macedonia

The phenological stages and the content of the anthocyanins of non-irrigated cultivars Blatina, Vranec, Kratoshija, Prokupec and Stanushina were study

Il sistema vigneto del Lago di Bolsena: caratterizzazione della produzione di Cannaiola di Marta

Il comprensorio del Lago di Bolsena (VT) è un territorio ad elevata vocazione vitivinicola in cui il paesaggio della vite storicamente persiste e caratterizza la fisionomia dei luoghi. Qui gli agroecosistemi viticoli possiedono una valenza ecologico-ambientale, storico-culturale ed economica di rilievo.

Spatio-temporal analysis of grapevine water behaviour in hillslope vineyards. the example of corton hill, Burgundy

Hillslope vineyards show various and complex water dynamics between soil and plants, and in order to gain further insight into this phenomenon, 8 grapevine plots were monitored during three vintages, from 2010 to 2013, on Corton Hill, Burgundy, France.