IVAS 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 The 1-hydroxyoctan-3-one, a molecule potentially involved in the fresh mushroom off-flavor in wines

The 1-hydroxyoctan-3-one, a molecule potentially involved in the fresh mushroom off-flavor in wines


An organoleptic defect, called fresh mushrooms off-flavor (FMOff), appeared in wines and spirits since the 2000’s. Numerous researches demonstrated that octen-3-one, 3-octanol and octen-3-ol (C8 compounds) were involved in the mushroom off-flavor in wines. Nevertheless, these molecules alone do not explain the entire defect in wines and some odorous zones still remain without chemical identification.  Recently, Crustomyces subabruptus has been shown to be a fungus capable of systematically producing FMOff under oenological conditions. The aim of this work was (a) to identify new markers of FMOff using Crustomyces subabruptus as a laboratory model, (b) to synthesize potential candidates and (c) to correlate the levels of these compounds determined by GC-MS with sensory characterization of healthy and affected wines. In practice, Pinot noir musts were artificially contaminated by Crustomyces subabruptus in the laboratory and then fermented. The musts and corresponding wines were analyzed in an untargeted way by GC-MS. By comparison with MS spectra libraries, the 1-hydroxy-3-octanone was formally and systematically identified in these matrices. This molecule, which has never been identified in grapes nor in wine, was only referenced in the fruit of the papaya mountain after enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycosidic fractions of the fruit pulp. In order to develop a targeted analysis by GC-MS, we synthesized the 1-hydroxy-3-octanone according to a previously published procedure. Briefly, 3-hydroxypropionitrile was first silylated to protect hydroxyl function and then reacted with pentylmagnesium bromide according to the Grignard reaction. The last step involved the deprotection of the resulting alcohol to obtain the expected product. Finally, 30 wines from different vintages (those of 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2021) on which were sensorially detected FMOff were spiked with deuterated internal standards (1-octen-3-one-d2, 1-octen-3-ol-d2, 3-octanol-d4), extracted with a pentane-dichloromethane mixture (2/1, v/v), rectified at 40°C, and then analyzed by GC-MS. The analysis of these wines showed the systematic presence of 1-hydroxy-3-octanone in the 2017 wines with levels that seemed to correlate significantly (test of spearman= 0,81) with the sensory analysis scores, r²=0.65. Wines with high sensory analysis scores for FMOff have a higher level of 1-hydroxyoctan-3-one than those with lower scores. On the other hand, the wines did not systematically contained octen-3-one, 3-octanol or octen-3-ol after 4 years of ageing, suggesting that 1-hydroxy-3-octanone could be a more stable chemical marker than the other compounds in the oenological matrix. In conclusion, 1-hydroxyoctan-3-one is a new molecular candidate for tracking the FMOff. Its formal identification completes the overview of the molecules involved in this defect and opens the way to a better understanding of the appearance and evolution of fresh mushrooms off flavors in wines.


Publication date: June 23, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Article


Delcros Léa1, Costis Arnaud2, Collas Sylvie1, Herve Marion1, Blondin Bruno2 and Roland Aurélie2

1MHCS, Comité Champagne, Epernay, ZI Pierre et Marie Curie – 51530 OIRY, France
2SPO, Univ Montpellier INRAE, Institut agro, Montpellier, France

Contact the author


1-hydroxyoctan-3-one, Fresh mushroom off-flavor, Wine, Must, Volatiles compounds


IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Dimethyl sulfide: a compound of interest from grape to wine glass

The overall quality of fine wines is linked to the development of “bouquet” during wine bottle ageing1. Several chemical reactions, occurring in atmosphere protected from oxygen, are favourable to the formation and preservation of sulphur compounds such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS). DMS accumulate in wines thanks to hydrolysis of its precursors (DMSp) mainly constituted by S-

Wines empirical perception and growers management practices in the Anjou Villages Brissac vineyard (France)

The concept of viticultural terroir includes soil, sub-soil, and climatic factors but also many management viticultural and oenological practices which are chosen according to know-how of the winegrowers.

Enzymes Impact During Fermentation On Volatile And Sensory Profile Of White Wines

Favoring the formation of volatile compounds and their precursors in must and wine represent one of the principal goals during winemaking technology. In recent years, most attention has been placed on using glycosidases to enlarge the aroma profile of white wines. The effect of enzymes makes odorless glycosidically-bound precursors be converted into aromatic compounds. This paper focuses to study the influence of enzymes (pectolytic and β-glycosides) administered before alcoholic fermentation, even if most studies analyze their use in different winemaking stages. Two semi-aromatic varieties such as Fetească regală and Sauvignon blanc were chosen.

Climatic zoning of viticultural production periods over the year in the tropical zone: application of the methodology of the Geoviticulture MCC system

L’objectif de cette recherche est le zonage climatique des périodes viticoles de l’année dans la Vallée du São Francisco, région brésilienne productrice de vins située en climat tropical semi-aride. Dans cette région, la production peut être échelonnée sur tous les mois de l’année.

Port wine region settling

Cet exposé présente une caractérisation générale de la Région Délimitée du Douro (RDD), productrice des appellations Porto (vins généreux), et Douro pour des vins de qualité VQPRD.