Yeast Derivatives: A Promising Alternative In Wine Oxidation Prevention?
Oxidation processes constitute a main problem in winemaking. Oxidation result in color browning and varietal aroma loss, which are key attributes of wine organoleptic quality . Despite the mechanisms involved in wine oxidation have been extensively reviewed , the protection of wine against oxidative spoilage remains one of the main goals of winemaking.
SO2 is one of the most efficient wine antioxidants used to prevent oxidation and microbial spoilage. However, intolerances caused by SO2 have led to the reduction of its concentration in wines. In a competitive global winemaking market strategy, it is crucial to reduce or even eliminate the use of SO2 and to search for new healthier strategies. In the last decade, Yeast Derivatives (YDs) were proposed as a new strategy to control wine oxidation . These products are obtained from yeasts by autolytic or hydrolytic processes and dried to obtain the commercial products. The aim of this work was to carry out a preliminary investigation of YDs with different composition on (i) their capacity to prevent oxidation of white wine in comparison with conventional treatment with SO2 and (ii) to evaluate their impact on wine quality.
For this study two YDs were used for all the experiments: a YDR naturally rich in reducing compounds including Glutathione and a YDL naturally rich in lipids. White wines vinified with no sulfite additions were supplemented with one of the YDs and submitted at oxidation: 8 mg/L of dissolved O2 respectively. A Pyroscience optical O2 sensor was used for the dissolved oxygen monitoring. Wines analyses were performed after the complete oxygen consumption: wine analysis (Foss), color (CIELab), glutathione (GSH, HPLC-fluo), ethanol (GC-MS), sensorial analysis. These results were compared with those obtained for wines with no antioxidant treatment and with SO2 addition. Results showed that yeast derivatives and SO2 permit to reduce the O2 consumption rate of 55 and 60% respectively than the untreated control without antioxidant. In comparison with the control wines, YDs have an impact on color but they allow the reduction of wine browning.
In addition, wines treated with YD present a lower ethanal amount than the control and SO2 wines. The YD naturally rich in reducing compounds show better preservation of wine’s GSH content. Finally, during wine sensorial analysis, the tasters prefer wines treated with YDs than wine without treatment. This work opens new perspectives for the development of yeast preparations usable as alternatives or as complements to sulfites during wine aging and allows the improvement of white wines oxidative stability.
 M. Nikolantonaki, A.L. Waterhouse. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60 (34) (2012), pp. 8484-8491.
 Waterhouse, A. L., & Laurie, V. F. (2006). American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 57(3), 306–313.
 P. Comuzzo, F. Battistutta, M. Vendrame, M.S. Páez, G. Luisi, R. Zironi. Food Chemistry, 168 (2015), pp. 107-114
Issue: IVAS 2022
1Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, UMR OENOLOGIE (OENO) – ISVV, UMR 1366 Univ. Bordeaux, INRAE, Bordeaux INP
2Amarante Process-ADERA, Unité de Recherche Œnologie, UMR 1366
Contact the author
Yeast derivatives, oxidation, white wine