OENO IVAS 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 OENO IVAS 9 OENO IVAS 2019 9 Chemical and Biochemical reactions, including grape and wines microorganisms impact 9 Impact of glutathione-rich inactivated yeast on wine chemical diversity

Impact of glutathione-rich inactivated yeast on wine chemical diversity

Abstract

Glutathione-rich inactivated dry yeasts (GSH-IDY) are claimed to accumulate intracellularly and then release glutathione in the must. Glutathione is beneficial to the wine quality, but scientists also highlighted that GSH-IDYs have a greater effect than only increase the pool of this antioxidant in the wine. This work unveils the extent of diversity of compounds potentially released by three different IDYs with increasing GSH contents.

Unsupervised analysis of IDYs released compounds in model wine was performed with the ultra-high-resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This powerful tool allows to have an instant picture of the released compounds chemical diversity. Bioinformatics strategy (chemometric analysis and network annotation) were then applied to visualize and refine the generated data.

Our results clearly show an impact of the GSH accumulation process not only visible on the glutathione itself, but also on the global diversity of compounds. The ratio of annotated CHONS/CHO ions increased from 0.2 to 2.1 respectively with the accumulation of GSH. The IDY with the highest concentration of GSH released 36 unique CHONS annotated ions compared to the two others IDYs. Since the bioprocess dedicated to accumulate the intracellular glutathione used cysteine rich medium, the possibility to attribute this diversity to notably a larger number of cysteinyl residues in peptides raised. Within the 1699 detected ions by (-)FT-ICR-MS, 193 were annotated as peptide sequences (from 2 to 5 residues). Within this pool of peptides, the IDY specific diversity increased with the level of glutathione from 5 to 45 unique m/z. Besides the global diversity, m/z attributed to cysteine containing peptides were much more abundant in the GSH-rich IDY. Within the 25 peptides containing cysteine, and common to the three IDYs, 64 % were more intense in GSH-rich IDY. Thus, the process leading to accumulate glutathione is also involved in other metabolic pathways which contribute to increase CHONS containing compounds and notably peptides.

This work gives new clues on the potential of biotechnology to improve the efficiency of natural yeast derivatives to produce potential active compounds such as cysteine containing peptides. This could lead to substitute partially the chemical additives and thus leading to a better control of wine quality and a better consumer acceptability.

DOI:

Publication date: June 11, 2020

Issue: OENO IVAS 2019

Type: Article

Authors

Florian Bahut, Youzhong Liu, Rémy Romanet, Nathalie Sieczkowski, Hervé Alexandre, Christian Coelho, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Maria Nikolantonaki, Régis D. Gougeon

Lallemand SAS, 19 rue des Briquetiers, 31702 Blagnac, France
Research Unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
Technische Universität München, Analytical Food Chemistry, Akademie 10, 85354 Freising, Germany

Contact the author

Email address (with mailto: link)

Keywords

yeast derivative, glutathione enrichment, metabolomic, peptide diversity 

Tags

IVES Conference Series | OENO IVAS 2019

Citation

Related articles…

Spontaneous fermentation dynamics of indigenous yeast populations and their effect on the sensory properties of Riesling

Varietal Riesling aroma relies strongly on the formation and liberation of bound aroma compounds. Floral monoterpenes, green C6-alcohols, fruity C13-norisoprenoids and spicy volatile phenols are predominantly bound to disaccharides, which are produced and stored in the grape berry during berry maturation. Grape processing aims to extract maximum amount of the precursors from the berry skin to increase the potential for a strong varietal aroma in the wine. Subsequent yeast selection plays an important part in this process.

An analytical framework to site-specifically study climate influence on grapevine involving the functional and Bayesian exploration of farm data time series synchronized using an eGDD thermal index

Climate influence on grapevine physiology is prevalent and this influence is only expected to increase with climate change. Although governed by a general determinism, climate influence on grapevine physiology may present variations according to the terroir. In addition, these site-specific differences are likely to be enhanced when climate influence is studied using farm data. Indeed, farm data integrate additional sources of variation such as a varying representativity of the conditions actually experienced in the field. Nevertheless, there is a real challenge in valuing farm data to enable grape growers to understand their own terroir and consequently adapt their practices to the local conditions. In such a context, this article proposes a framework to site-specifically study climate influence on grapevine physiology using farm data. It focuses on improving the analysis of time series of weather data. The analytical framework includes the synchronization of time series using site-specific thermal indices computed with an original method called Extended Growing Degree Days (eGDD). Synchronized time series are then analyzed using a Bayesian functional Linear regression with Sparse Steps functions (BLiSS) in order to detect site-specific periods of strong climate influence on yield development. The article focuses on temperature and rain influence on grape yield development as a case study. It uses data from three commercial vineyards respectively situated in the Bordeaux region (France), California (USA) and Israel. For all vineyards, common periods of climate influence on yield development were found. They corresponded to already known periods, for example around veraison of the year before harvest. However, the periods differed in their precise timing (e.g. before, around or after veraison), duration and correlation direction with yield. Other periods were found for only one or two vineyards and/or were not referred to in literature, for example during the winter before harvest.

First identification of a glycosylated fraction involved in mushroom-off-flavor in grapes: influence of B. cinerea, powdery mildew and C. subabruptus

An organoleptic defect, called fresh mushrooms off-flavor, appeared in wines and spirits since the 2000’s. Numerous researches demonstrated that octen-3-one, octan-3-ol and octen-3-ol

Analyse of« terroirs» zoning on cooperative wineries (Côtes du Rhône area, France). Influence on vine agronomic response and on grape quality

Plusieurs caves coopératives de l’AOC Côtes du Rhône se servent des informations du zonage pour la sélection des vendanges en fonction du terroir d’origine, afin d’élaborer des «cuvées terroir» et d’exploiter ainsi le potentiel qualitatif de leurs secteurs.

Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture

Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.