OENO IVAS 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 OENO IVAS 9 OENO IVAS 2019 9 Chemical and Biochemical reactions, including grape and wines microorganisms impact 9 Impact of glutathione-rich inactivated yeast on wine chemical diversity

Impact of glutathione-rich inactivated yeast on wine chemical diversity


Glutathione-rich inactivated dry yeasts (GSH-IDY) are claimed to accumulate intracellularly and then release glutathione in the must. Glutathione is beneficial to the wine quality, but scientists also highlighted that GSH-IDYs have a greater effect than only increase the pool of this antioxidant in the wine. This work unveils the extent of diversity of compounds potentially released by three different IDYs with increasing GSH contents.

Unsupervised analysis of IDYs released compounds in model wine was performed with the ultra-high-resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This powerful tool allows to have an instant picture of the released compounds chemical diversity. Bioinformatics strategy (chemometric analysis and network annotation) were then applied to visualize and refine the generated data.

Our results clearly show an impact of the GSH accumulation process not only visible on the glutathione itself, but also on the global diversity of compounds. The ratio of annotated CHONS/CHO ions increased from 0.2 to 2.1 respectively with the accumulation of GSH. The IDY with the highest concentration of GSH released 36 unique CHONS annotated ions compared to the two others IDYs. Since the bioprocess dedicated to accumulate the intracellular glutathione used cysteine rich medium, the possibility to attribute this diversity to notably a larger number of cysteinyl residues in peptides raised. Within the 1699 detected ions by (-)FT-ICR-MS, 193 were annotated as peptide sequences (from 2 to 5 residues). Within this pool of peptides, the IDY specific diversity increased with the level of glutathione from 5 to 45 unique m/z. Besides the global diversity, m/z attributed to cysteine containing peptides were much more abundant in the GSH-rich IDY. Within the 25 peptides containing cysteine, and common to the three IDYs, 64 % were more intense in GSH-rich IDY. Thus, the process leading to accumulate glutathione is also involved in other metabolic pathways which contribute to increase CHONS containing compounds and notably peptides.

This work gives new clues on the potential of biotechnology to improve the efficiency of natural yeast derivatives to produce potential active compounds such as cysteine containing peptides. This could lead to substitute partially the chemical additives and thus leading to a better control of wine quality and a better consumer acceptability.


Publication date: June 11, 2020

Issue: OENO IVAS 2019

Type: Article


Florian Bahut, Youzhong Liu, Rémy Romanet, Nathalie Sieczkowski, Hervé Alexandre, Christian Coelho, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Maria Nikolantonaki, Régis D. Gougeon

Lallemand SAS, 19 rue des Briquetiers, 31702 Blagnac, France
Research Unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
Technische Universität München, Analytical Food Chemistry, Akademie 10, 85354 Freising, Germany

Contact the author

Email address (with mailto: link)


yeast derivative, glutathione enrichment, metabolomic, peptide diversity 


IVES Conference Series | OENO IVAS 2019


Related articles…

Physiological and growth reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt to row orientation and soil water status

Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.

Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California

San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.

The effects of cane girdling on berry texture properties and the concentration of some aroma compounds in three table grape cultivars

The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.

Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot Blanc grape

The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.

Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture

Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.