Energy partitioning and functionality of photosystem II in water-stressed grapevines during heatwaves revealed by continuous measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence
The increased intensity and frequency of heatwaves, coupled with prolonged periods of drought, are a significant threat to viticulture worldwide. During these conditions the more exposed leaves can show visible symptoms of heat damage. We monitored the functionality of photosystem II (PSII) in the field to better understand the impact of heatwaves on canopy performance. A factorial experiment was established in summer 2023 using Shiraz grapevines in the Barossa valley of South Australia, involving water-stressed and well-watered vines. To monitor the impacts of irrigation and leaf position on PSII functionality, MONI/MICRO PAM heads were mounted on the south (polar facing) and north (equatorial facing) sides of the canopy of each vine. Water stress decreased midday stem water potential (SWP) to -1.4 MPa in water-stressed plants, while well-watered plants maintained SWP at -0.8 MPa. Maximum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) decreased by higher exposure to heat and radiation on the northern side, especially when plants were subjected to water stress. Absorbed energy partitioning in PSII differed between northern and southern sides, and it was influenced by irrigation. At midday, leaves on the southern side showed higher photochemical (Y(II)) and lower non-photochemical yield (Y(NPQ)) than northern leaves. Water stress decreased Y(II) and increased Y(NPQ) at midday predominantly on the northern side. During a heatwave, PSII showed an increase in photoinhibition (Y(NO)) in water-stressed plants on the northern side; however, this effect was reversible and persisted only one day following the heatwave and decreased thereafter to a similar rate to that observed in the rest of the canopy. These findings suggest that, in the short-term, irrigation can be tailored to sustain the canopy during heat waves, while in the medium-term, canopy management strategies (such as shade netting) may be needed to maintain leaf function during and following heatwaves.
Issue: ICGWS 2023
1Free University of Bolzano- Bozen, Italy
2South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI), Adelaide, Australia
3Treasury Wine Estates, Adelaide, Australia.
4CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Adelaide, Australia
5University of Innsbruck, Austria