terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 International Congress on Grapevine and Wine Sciences 9 2ICGWS-2023 9 Evaluation of phenology, agronomic and oenological quality in minority wine varieties in Madrid as a strategy for adaptation to climate change

Evaluation of phenology, agronomic and oenological quality in minority wine varieties in Madrid as a strategy for adaptation to climate change


The main phenological stages (budburst, flowering, veraison, and ripeness) and the fruit composition of 34 Spanish minority varieties were studied to determine their cultivation potential and help winegrowers adapt their production systems to climate change conditions. In total, 4 control cultivars, and 30 minority varieties from central Spain were studied during a period of 3 campaigns, in the ampelographic collection “El Encín”, in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid. Agronomic and oenological characteristics such as yield, and total soluble solids concentration have been monitored.

Periods of expression of the main phenological stages were identified; sprouting, for 3 to 4 weeks; 9 days of flowering, appearance of veraison for 4 weeks and a sprouting period to harvest that occurs between 20 and 30 weeks. The results allow us to classify the varieties, according to the moment of their maturation (early, medium, and late in all varieties, plus very early and very late, in red varieties only) and with an average yield per plant (low, medium, and high) ranging from 200 to 1,200 g/plant.  

The reduction of the usual phenology periods and decrease in the acidity of musts, increase in pH, and concentration of sugars early, are considered negative effects of climate change [1]. The composition of the fruit is reflected in the concentration of ºBrix, which ranged from 15.8 – 27.1 ºBrix; pH, from 2.90 and 4.19; total acidity between 1.48 and 6.83 g/L of tartaric acid and malic acid between 0.16 and 3.70 g/L. Minority varieties tend to thrive in increasingly warm conditions, with periods of late sprouting and early ripening, which can help combat the risk of late frosts [2].

It is suggested that late or very late ripening varieties, which currently manage to ripen in warm conditions, with a sufficient accumulation of total soluble solids (20-22 ºBrix), high acidity values, and yields higher than 0.5 kg/plant, can be cultivated as new plant material for the mitigation of the effects of climate change in the viticulture of central Spain.

Acknowledgments: Project RTI2018-101085-R-C31 (MINORVIN) funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by ERDF A way of making Europe. F.E.E-R. has received a grant (PRE2019-089073) funded by MCIN/AEI/ 10.13039/501100011033 and ESF Investing in your future.


1)  Muñoz-Organero, G. et al. (2022). Phenological Study of 53 Spanish Minority Grape Varieties to Search for Adaptation of Vitiviniculture to Climate Change Conditions. Horticulturae 2022, 8, 984. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8110984

2)  Clingeleffer, P.R. & Davis, H.P. (2022). Assessment of phenology, growth characteristics and berry composition in a hot Australian climate to identify wine cultivars adapted to climate change. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research., 28: 255-275, DOI: 10.1111/ajgw.12544


Publication date: October 11, 2023

Issue: ICGWS 2023

Type: Poster


Espinosa-Roldán F. E.1*, Muñoz-Organero G.1, Martinez De Toda F.2, Crespo García J.1, Fernandez-Pastor M.1, Sanchez V. 1, Cabello F.1, García-Díaz A.1

1Instituto Madrileño de Investigación y Desarrollo Rural Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDRA), Finca El Encín, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
2ICVV (Universidad de La Rioja, CSIC, Gobierno de La Rioja), c/ Madre de Dios, 51, 26006 Logroño, Spain

Contact the author*


phenology, climate change, minority grape varieties, ripeness


2ICGWS | ICGWS | ICGWS 2023 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Toasting and grain effect on Tempranillo red wine aged in Quercus petraea barrels

The barrel-making process is widely recognized as a crucial practice that affects the composition of barrel-aged wine. After the drying process, the staves are considered ready for barrel assembly, which includes the processes of bending and toasting the barrel structure. Toasting is considered one of the most critical stages in determining the physical and chemical composition of the staves, which can influence the chemical and sensory composition of the wine aged in barrels made from them [1].

Physicochemical behaviour of wine spirit and wine distillate aged in Sherry Casks® and Brandy casks

Brandy is a spirit drink made from “wine spirit” (<86% Alcohol by Volume – ABV; high levels of congeners and they are mainly less volatile than ethanol), it may be blended with a “wine distillate” (<94.8%ABV; low levels of congeners and these are mainly more volatile than ethanol), as long as that distillate does not exceed a maximum of 50% of the alcoholic content of the finished product[1]. Brandy must be aged for at least 6 months in oak casks with <1000L of capacity. During ageing, changes occur in colour, flavour, and aroma that improve the quality of the original distillate.

Phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics of blends of cv. Tempranillo wines from vines grown with different viticultural techniques in a semi-arid area

The quality and color stability of red wines are directly related to content and distribution of phenolic compounds. However, the climate change produces the asynchrony between the dates of technological and maturity of grapes. The crop-forcing technique (CF) restores the coupling between phenolic and technological ripeness while limits vineyard yields. Blending of wines is frequently used to equilibriate composition of wines and to increase their stability, color and quality. The aim of the present work is to study the phenolic composition and color of wine blends made with FW (wines from vines subjected to CF) and CW (wines for vines under the usual cultivation practices).

Correlative study between degradation of rosé wine under accelerated conditions and under normal conditions

Several studies have tried to develop different methods to study the photodegradation of wine in an accelerated way, trying to elucidate the effect of light on the wine compounds[1]. In a previous study, our team developed a chamber that speeds up the photodegradation of rosé wine[2]. In the present work we have tried to establish a correlation between irradiation times in accelerated conditions and the natural exposure to the cycles of light that usually exist in markets or at home.

Phenolic extraction and dissolved oxygen concentration during red wines fermentations with Airmixig M.I.™

During red wine fermentation, the extraction of phenolics compounds and sufficient oxygen provision are critical for wine quality [1,2]. In this trial, we aimed at evaluating the kinetics of phenolic extraction and dissolved oxygen during red wine fermentations using the airmixing system. Twenty lots of red grape musts were fermented in 300.000 L tanks, equipped with airmixing, using two injection regimes (i.e., high and low intensity, and high and low daily frequency). An oxygen analyzer was introduced into the tanks in order to record the concentration of dissolved oxygen over time.