Genetic variation among wild grapes native to Japan
Domesticated grapes are assumed to have originated in the Middle East. However, a considerable number of species are native in East Asian countries such as China, Korea and Japan as well. Evidence suggests that a total of seven species and eight varieties have been found to be native to Japan. A wide level variation in morphology, genetic and fruit composition exist in wild grape native to Japan. Hence, the present study aimed to assess the ploidy level and genetic variability among the wild grapes native to Japan. A total of seven wild grape, in addition to two hybrids (Vitis vinifera and Vitis ficifolia (Japanese wild grape)) and one each Vitis vinifera and Vitis labruscana cultivars, were evaluated using 14 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The RAPD markers have been reported to be highly variable both within and between species. The RAPD markers were selected simply because of their uniqueness, simplicity and discriminatory capability. Likewise, ploidy level was determined by flow cytometric methods. The flow cytometric analysis showed no variation among wild grapes and their hybrids. All grapes were diploid irrespective of origin and diverse morphological, phenological and berry characteristics. The 14 RAPD primers amplified 120 reproducible bands among 11 grape accessions. Of the 120 total bands, 114 were polymorphic and 6 were monomorphic. The unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) using 120 RAPD bands from 14 selected primers clearly separated the wild grapes into distinct groups. The affinity of hybrid grapes with their parents proved true hybridity.
Issue: ICGWS 2023
1Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Paklihawa Campus, Siddharthanagar‑1, Rupandehi, Nepal
2University Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Showa, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2304, Japan
3Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan
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wild grapes, RAPD, ploidy level, Vitis ficifolia