terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 International Congress on Grapevine and Wine Sciences 9 2ICGWS-2023 9 Genetic variation among wild grapes native to Japan

Genetic variation among wild grapes native to Japan

Abstract

Domesticated grapes are assumed to have originated in the Middle East. However, a considerable number of species are native in East Asian countries such as China, Korea and Japan as well. Evidence suggests that a total of seven species and eight varieties have been found to be native to Japan.  A wide level variation in morphology, genetic and fruit composition exist in wild grape native to Japan. Hence, the present study aimed to assess the ploidy level and genetic variability among the wild grapes native to Japan. A total of seven wild grape, in addition to two hybrids (Vitis vinifera and Vitis ficifolia (Japanese wild grape)) and one each Vitis vinifera and Vitis labruscana cultivars, were evaluated using 14 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The RAPD markers have been reported to be highly variable both within and between species. The RAPD markers were selected simply because of their uniqueness, simplicity and discriminatory capability. Likewise, ploidy level was determined by flow cytometric methods. The flow cytometric analysis showed no variation among wild grapes and their hybrids. All grapes were diploid irrespective of origin and diverse morphological, phenological and berry characteristics. The 14 RAPD primers amplified 120 reproducible bands among 11 grape accessions. Of the 120 total bands, 114 were polymorphic and 6 were monomorphic. The unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) using 120 RAPD bands from 14 selected primers clearly separated the wild grapes into distinct groups. The affinity of hybrid grapes with their parents proved true hybridity.

DOI:

Publication date: October 6, 2023

Issue: ICGWS 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

Puspa Raj Poudel1,2*, Ikuo Kataoka3, Kenji Beppu3 and Ryosuke Mochioka2

1Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Paklihawa Campus, Siddharthanagar1, Rupandehi, Nepal
2University Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Showa, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2304, Japan
3Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan

Contact the author*

Keywords

wild grapes, RAPD, ploidy level, Vitis ficifolia

Tags

2ICGWS | ICGWS | ICGWS 2023 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

Atypical aging and hydric stress: insights on an exceptionally dry year

Atypical aging (ATA) is a white wine fault characterized by the appearance of notes of wet rag, acacia blossoms and naphthalene, along with the vanishing of varietal aromas. 2-aminoacetophenone (AAP) – a degradation compound of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) – is regarded as the main sensorial and chemical marker responsible for this defect. About the origin of ATA, a stress reaction occurring in the vineyard has been looked as the leading cause of this defect. Agronomic, climatic and pedological factors are the main triggers and among them, drought stress seems to play a crucial role.[1]

Rootstock effect on Cabernet Sauvignon aromatic and chemical composition

Grape quality potential for wine production is strongly influenced by environmental parameters and agronomic factors. Several studies underline the rootstock effect on scions vegetative growth and berry composition [1] with an impact on wine quality. Rootstocks are promising agronomic tools for climate change adaptation and in most grape-growing regions the potential diversity of rootstocks is not fully used and only a few genotypes are planted. Moreover, little is known about the effect of rootstock genetic variability on the aromatic composition in wines.

The effect of ozonated water treatment on the metabolic profile and resistance of vines to Downy and powdery mildew 

Ozone is a potent oxidizing compound that quickly decomposes into oxygen without residues. Previous works reported that ozone is not only a disinfectant that directly harms the pathogens of the vine but also activates systemic defense systems in the plant by activating oxidative stress. We assume these systemic defense mechanisms are essential to the vines’ resistance to downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola & Erysiphe necator, respectively). The goals of the research are to examine the effect of spraying with ozone water on the plant’s resistance against the mentioned pathogens as well as to characterize the metabolic profile of the plants treated with ozone as well as physiological characteristics in the vines such as the level of Photosynthesis and crop yield. Vines in the vineyard sprayed with ozone water at concentrations of 2 and 4 PPM weekly and biweekly, untreated control & conventional spray. Leaves were taken from vines 2,4,7,9 and 11 days after exposure to ozone and inoculated with the pathogens.

Metabolomic profiling of botrytized grape berries: unravelling the dynamic chemical transformations during noble rot

Botrytis cinerea, a fungal pathogen commonly known as grey mold, which under specific climatic conditions can develop into a desirable form known as noble rot. In this process the fungus penetrates the grape skin, allowing water evaporation and concentration of sugars and flavors, while profoundly affects the metabolite composition of grapes, leading to the production of unique and desirable compounds in the resulting wines. The result is a unique and complex wine with a luscious sweetness, heightened aromatics, and a distinct character.

Advancing grapevine science through genomic research

The seminar will examine the complexities and prospects of genomic research on Vitis species, characterize by exceptionally high heterozygosity and common interspecific gene flow. The seminar will showcase case studies highlighting the critical role of diploid genome references in grape research, specifically in areas such as aroma development, disease resistance, and domestication traits. It will also address the emerging focus on pangenomes within the Vitis genus, particularly in the context of genetic studies on naturally interbreeding populations.