terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 International Congress on Grapevine and Wine Sciences 9 2ICGWS-2023 9 Stomatal abundance in grapevine: developmental genes, genotypic variation, and physiology

Stomatal abundance in grapevine: developmental genes, genotypic variation, and physiology

Abstract

Grapevine cultivation is threatened by the global warming, which combines high temperatures and reduced rainfall, impacting in wine quality and even plant survival. Breeding for varieties resilient to these challenges must address plant traits such as tolerance to supraoptimal temperatures and optimized water use efficiency while minimizing productivity and quality losses. Stomatal abundance (SA) determines the maximum leaf potential for transpiration and thus water loss and cooling. Since SA results from a developmental process during leaf emergence and growth, knowledge on the genetic control of this process would provide specific targets for modification. Several genes controlling stomatal development have been characterized in Arabidopsis. Using translational genomics, we identified in the grapevine reference genome single orthologues of the master stomatal development regulators SPCH, MUTEand FAMA. We complemented Arabidopsis loss-of-function mutants with the grapevine candidate proteins, whose conditional overexpression also produced the expected epidermal phenotypes. The corresponding grapevine gene promoters are also under study. Additionally, we scored SA in 13 grapevine varieties over four consecutive growing seasons, and disclosed substantial SA differences with a strong genetic basis. These varieties were also examined for water use efficiency and physiological performance under drought and irrigation, finding significant varietal differences. Correlating developmental and physiological traits will contribute useful tools for grapevine management and breeding.   

Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the PID2019-105362RB-100, SBPLY/21/180501/000144, UCLM intramural grants and EU FEDER funds. PhD grants from JCCM supported AO and JIM.

DOI:

Publication date: October 6, 2023

Issue: ICGWS 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

Mena-Morales A.1*, Martín-Forero A.F.2, Ortega A.2, Saiz-Pérez J.2, Martínez-Gascueña J.1, Chacón-Vozmediano J.L.1, Illescas-Miranda J.2, Fenoll C.2, Mena M. 2

1Regional Institute of Agri-Food and Forestry Research and Development of Castilla-La Mancha (IRIAF), IVICAM, Ctra. Toledo-Albacete s/n, 13700 Tomelloso (Ciudad Real), Spain
2 Faculty of Environmental and Biochemistry Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III, s/n, Technological Campus of the Arms Factory, 45071 Toledo, Spain

Contact the author*

Keywords

stomatal abundance, stomatal genes, genotypic variation, water use efficiency

Tags

2ICGWS | ICGWS | ICGWS 2023 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

Culturable microbial communities associated with the grapevine soil in vineyards of La Rioja, Spain

The definition of soil health is complex due to the lack of agreement on adequate indicators and to the high variability of global soils. Nevertheless, it has been widely used as synonymous of soil quality for more than one decade, and there is a consensus warning of scientists that soil quality and biodiversity loss are occurring due to the traditional intensive agricultural practices.
In this work we monitored a set of soil parameters, both physicochemical and microbiological, in an experimental vineyard under three different management and land use systems: a) addition of external organic matter (EOM) to tilled soil; b) no tillage and plant cover between grapevine rows, and c) grapevines planted in rows running down the slope and tilled soil.

Sugar accumulation disorder Berry Shrivel – from current knowledge towards novel hypothesis

In contrast to fruit and grape berry ripening, the biological processes causing ripening disorders are often much less understood, although shriveling disorders of fruits are manifold and contribute to yield losses and reduced fruit quality worldwide. Shrinking berries are a common feature for all shriveling disorders in grapevine although their timing of appearance during the berry ripening process and their underlying induction processes distinct them from each other. The sugar accumulation disorder Berry Shrivel (BS) is characterized by a suppression of sugar accumulation short after veraison resulting in berries low in sugar content and anthocyanins in berry skins, while the organic acid content is similar. Recent studies analyzed the biochemical, morphological and molecular processes affected in BS berries and linked early changes to the period of ripening onset [1,2].

Irrigation frequency in four grapevine red varieties in Spain. Effect on must volatile composition

The irrigation water management in the vineyard is a crucial aspect to obtain sustainable quality production over time. Previous studies have set the water requirements to be applied in the vineyard at 30 % of the reference evapotranspiration (ET0), although there are no studies that settle the effects of the frequency of irrigation application on red varieties in Spain. The present study contemplates the application of deficit irrigation (30 % ET0) applying a weekly dose in a single irrigation (T07) or in two irrigation events (T03) per week. The study has been carried out in 2021-2022 with four red varieties in different Spanish wine regions: Garnacha Tinta (Badajoz), Tempranillo (Valladolid), Syrah (Albacete) and Mencía (Lugo). The effects of irrigation frequency on must volatile composition have been evaluated through GC-MS.

Exploring intra-vineyard variability with sensor- and molecular-based approaches 

The application of remote and proximal sensing is a fast and efficient method to monitor grapevine vegetative and physiological parameters and is considered valuable to derive information on associated yield and quality traits in the vineyard. Further details can be obtained by the application of molecular analysis at the gene expression level aiming at elucidating how pathways controlling the formation of different grape quality traits are influenced by spatial variability. This work aims at evaluating intra-vineyard variability in grape composition at harvest and at comparing this with remotely sensed canopy vegetation data and molecular-based approaches.

Potential of new genetic resources to improve drought adaptation of grapevine rootstocks

Grapevines are grown mainly as grafts worldwide, but the rootstocks most commonly used were selected between the late 19th and early 20th centuries and are based on reduced genetic diversity[1]. In the context of climate change, it is indeed urgent to diversify the range of rootstocks with genotypes much more adapted to drier environments, than the existing ones[2]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of new genetic resources for grapevine rootstock breeding programs. For this purpose, 12 American and Asian wild Vitis species (3 to 5 accessions per species = 50 accessions) were evaluated for their rooting ability and drought response.