Combined abiotic-biotic plant stresses on the roots of grapevine
In the 19th century, devastating outbreaks of phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch), almost brought European viticulture to its knees. Phylloxera does not only take energy in form of sugars from the vine, but also affects the up- and down- regulations of genes, acts as a carbon sink and reprograms the physiology of the grapevines, including nutrient uptake and the defense system . A key trait of rootstocks is the ability to perform well under high lime conditions as about 30 % of the land surface has calcareous soil. Iron deficiency not only causes the well-known problems of lime-induced chlorosis and stunted growth, but also affects the entire plant metabolism. This experiment analyzed the performance of two rootstock genotypes (Teleki 5C and Fercal) with different lime and phylloxera tolerance characteristics by analyzing the physiological and biochemical response to combined and singles stressors. A standardized pot experiment was conducted with grafted vines (both rootstocks with Chardonnay as scion) in 2022. Vines were planted into peat substrate in 7 L pots and fertilized with half strength Hoagland solution. The carbonate stress was applied by adding 10 mM KHCO3 to the nutrient solution. Vine physiology was frequently measured and samples were collected to analyze primary metabolites. We hypothesize that the combined lime-phylloxera-stress affects Fercal tolerance to lime stress by manipulating the primary metabolism in root tips. Our results showed, non-structural carbohydrates and organic acids in roots after combined stresses were reduced as compared to single stresses in Fercal suggesting a direct influence on stress tolerance. This pilot study shows, that biotic interactions could influence rootstocks traits with potential effects on vineyards in the frame of climate change.
- Savi T et al. (2019) Gas exchange, biomass and non-structural carbohydrates dynamics in vines under combined drought and biotic stress. BMC Plant Biol 19:408, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-019-2017-2
Issue: ICGWS 2023
1University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Department of Crop Sciences, Institute of Viticulture and Pomology, Konrad-Lorenz Straße 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria