terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 International Congress on Grapevine and Wine Sciences 9 2ICGWS-2023 9 Combined abiotic-biotic plant stresses on the roots of grapevine

Combined abiotic-biotic plant stresses on the roots of grapevine

Abstract

In the 19th century, devastating outbreaks of phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch), almost brought European viticulture to its knees. Phylloxera does not only take energy in form of sugars from the vine, but also affects the up- and down- regulations of genes, acts as a carbon sink and reprograms the physiology of the grapevines, including nutrient uptake and the defense system [1]. A key trait of rootstocks is the ability to perform well under high lime conditions as about 30 % of the land surface has calcareous soil. Iron deficiency not only causes the well-known problems of lime-induced chlorosis and stunted growth, but also affects the entire plant metabolism. This experiment analyzed the performance of two rootstock genotypes (Teleki 5C and Fercal) with different lime and phylloxera tolerance characteristics by analyzing the physiological and biochemical response to combined and singles stressors. A standardized pot experiment was conducted with grafted vines (both rootstocks with Chardonnay as scion) in 2022. Vines were planted into peat substrate in 7 L pots and fertilized with half strength Hoagland solution. The carbonate stress was applied by adding 10 mM KHCO3 to the nutrient solution. Vine physiology was frequently measured and samples were collected to analyze primary metabolites. We hypothesize that the combined lime-phylloxera-stress affects Fercal tolerance to lime stress by manipulating the primary metabolism in root tips. Our results showed, non-structural carbohydrates and organic acids in roots after combined stresses were reduced as compared to single stresses in Fercal suggesting a direct influence on stress tolerance. This pilot study shows, that biotic interactions could influence rootstocks traits with potential effects on vineyards in the frame of climate change.

References:

  1. Savi T et al. (2019) Gas exchange, biomass and non-structural carbohydrates dynamics in vines under combined drought and biotic stress. BMC Plant Biol 19:408, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-019-2017-2

DOI:

Publication date: October 9, 2023

Issue: ICGWS 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

Juliane Bußkamp1*, Sarhan Khalil1, Astrid Forneck1, Michaela Griesser1*

1University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Department of Crop Sciences, Institute of Viticulture and Pomology, Konrad-Lorenz Straße 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria

Contact the author*

Keywords

phylloxera, iron deficiency, combined stress, rootstocks

Tags

2ICGWS | ICGWS | ICGWS 2023 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

Detoxification capacities of heavy metals and pesticides by yeasts 

Winegrowing is still characterized by the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and plant protection products, despite strong recommendations to limit these practices. A part of these xenobiotics and metals are then found in grape juice and wine, causing a major health concern, as well as negatively affecting the fermentation process. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These species have a wide phenotypic diversity, which would be exploited to broaden the aromatic palette of wines.

Quantification of polysaccharides of variety Pomaces of the D.O.Ca Rioja

Pomace is one of the main residues generated by the wine industry and represents an environmental problem. Currently, there is a growing interest in the revaluation of these products because different bioactive compounds can be obtained from them, such as polyphenols, grape seed oils and polysaccharides. Red grape pomace can be an important source of polysaccharides, but they are currently little studied and even less with viable and environmental extraction processes (green extraction), such as flash extraction. The residual amount of the fraction rich in pectin (residual pulp) and component rich in hemicellulose in the pomace and the strength of association of the pectin with the cellulose-xyloglucan network depend on the degree of extractability of the polysaccharides in red winemaking and on the winemaking conditions.

Oenological compatibility of biocontrol yeasts applied to wine grapes 

Antagonistic yeasts applied to wine grapes must be compatible with the thereafter winemaking process, avoiding competition with the fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae or affecting wine flavour. Therefore, fifteen epiphytic yeasts (6 Metschnikowia sp., 6 Hanseniaspora uvarum, 3 Starmerella bacillaris) previously selected for its biocontrol ability against Alternaria on wine grapes were evaluate for possible competition with S. cerevisiae by the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) employing YNB agar media with 10 mM of 17 different carbonate sources present in wine grapes (proline, asparagine, alanine, glutamic acid, tirosine, arginine, lisine, methionine, glicine, malic acid, tartaric acid, fructose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, sucrose, glucose).

Genetic identification of 200-year-old Serbian grapevine herbarium

Botanist Andreas Raphael Wolny collected a grapevine herbarium from 1812-1824 in Sremski Karlovci (wine region of Vojvodina, Serbia), which represents local cultivated grapevine diversity before the introduction of grape phylloxera in the region. The herbarium comprises over 100 samples organized into two subcollections based on berry colour (red and white varieties), totaling 47 different grape varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate the historical varietal assortment of Balkan and Pannonian winegrowing areas with long viticulture traditions.

Application of UV-B radiation in pre- and postharvest as an innovative and sustainable cultural practice to improve grape phenolic composition

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a minor part of the solar spectrum, but it represents an important ecological factor that influences many biological processes related to plant growth and development. In recent years, the application of UVR in agriculture and food production is emerging as a clean and environmentally friendly technology.
In grapevine, many studies have been conducted on the effects of ambient levels of UVR, but there are few considering the effects of UV-B application on grape phenolic composition under commercial growing or postharvest conditions.