Oenococcus oeni clonal diversity in the carbonic maceration winemaking
This essay was aimed to describe the clonal diversity of Oenococcus oeni in the malolactic fermentation of the carbonic maceration (CM) winemaking. The free and the pressed liquids from CM were sampled and compared to the wine from a standard winemaking with previous destemming and crushing (DC) of grapes .O. oeni strain typification was performed by PFGE as González-Arenzana et al. described (2014) . Results showed that 13 genotypes, referred as to letters, were distinguished from the 49 isolated strains, meaning the genotype “a” the 27%, the “b” the 14%, the “c” the 12%, the “d and e” the 10 % each other, and the remaining ones less than the 8% each one. In the traditional winemaking by DC 3 genotypes were found, while in the free liquid of CM were 4 the clones and in the pressed CM wine were 9 (Figure 1). These results demonstrated that the CM winemaking favoured the O. oeni strains diversity, being the pressed fraction 3 times more diverse than DC winemaking, probably due to the breakage of the biofilms formed during the CM at the press moment or because the special environmental.