Applicability of grape native yeasts to enhance regional wine typicity
The universalization in wine production has been restricting the imprint of terroir in regional wines, resulting in loss of typicity. Microbes are the main driving force in wine production, conducting fermentation and originating a myriad of metabolites that underly wine aroma. Grape berries harbor an ecological niche composed of filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria, which are influenced by the ripening stage, cultivar and region. The research project GrapeMicrobiota gathers a consortium from University of Zaragoza, University of Minho and University of Tours and aims at the isolation of native yeast strains from berries of the wine region Douro, UNESCO World Heritage, towards the production of wines that stand out in the market for their authenticity and for reflecting their region of origin in their aroma. A catalogue of over 200 yeast isolates was obtained from berries of cv. Sousão, Touriga Nacional and Viosinho, following enrichment steps in selective medium, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were selected to conduct fermentations in laboratory and in cellar conditions. The volatile profiles of young wines were analysed by GC-FID and SPE Ion-trap MS, and compared to those obtained in fermentations carried out by commercial strains used by local farmers. Results showed clear distinctions between volatile profiles of wines produced with native strains or with commercial strains, opening perspectives for the industrial use of native yeasts for enhancing regional wine aroma.
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by FCT project GrapeMicrobiota (PTDC/BAA-AGR/2691/2020), “Contrato-Programa” (UIDB/04050/2020), CoLAB VINES & WINES, Sogevinus S.A., Diputación General de Aragón (T29_23) and European Social Fund.
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Issue: ICGWS 2023
1Laboratory for Flavor Analysis and Enology (LAAE), Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón-IA2 (Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA) Associate Unit to Instituto de las Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (ICVV) (UR-CSIC-GR), E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain
2Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology (CBMA), Department of Biology, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal