Possible methods of adaptation to the effects of climate change in the Tokaj Wine Region
Viticulture’s adaptation to the harmful effects of climate change is globally the biggest challenge of the near future. Short, extremely intensive rainfalls and longer periods of drought are getting more frequent in the Tokaj Wine Region, where the majority of the vineyards are cultivated on steep slopes. Hence, erosion has high risk, especially when combined with the loess-based soils on about ten percent of the region. The environmentally beneficial cover crop and mulch usage can effectively reduce the risk of erosion, according to research done by the Tokaj Wine Region Research Institute of Viticulture and Oenology. Adjusting the optimal technology to the features of each plot is highly advised, paying attention to soil, geographical, climatological and vineyard characteristics. Careful choice of the rootstock variety of the vines could be an effective tool aiming better drought tolerance. In our research we compare the almost exclusively used, but less tolerant Teleki 5.C rootstock with internationally renowned drought-tolerant rootstocks as 140 Ruggeri, 1103 Paulsen and 110 Richer on multiple vineyard plots, grafted with Furmint and Hárslevelű, the most important, indigenous varieties of Tokaj. In cooperation with the Insitute of Karcag we also study the water usage characteristics of the rootstock/scion combinations in different types of lysimeters. The grape berry in maturation is especially sensible to the combination of extreme heat and high levels of UV radiation, which is getting more frequent in some vintages. As a result, higher amount of phenolic compounds in the wine could deterior its sensory properties and aging potential, an effect observed with Furmint and Hárslevelű. Application of plastic nets providing shade in the critical period, these effects could be reduced according to our preliminary results.
Issue: ICGWS 2023
1University of Tokaj-Hegyalja, Lórántffy Institute, Department of Viticulture and Oenology H-3950 Sárospatak, Eötvös út 7., Hungary
2Hungarian University of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Research Insistute of Karcag