terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 A synthesis approach on the impact of elevated CO2 on berry physiology and yield of Vitis vinifera

A synthesis approach on the impact of elevated CO2 on berry physiology and yield of Vitis vinifera

Abstract

Besides the increase in global mean temperature the second main challenge of a changing climate is the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in relation to physiology and yield performance of grapevines. The benefits of increasing CO2 levels under greenhouse environment or open field studies have been well investigated for various annual crops. Research under free carbon dioxide enrichment on field-grown perennial plants such as grapevines is limited to a few studies. Further, chamber and greenhouse experiments have been conducted mostly on potted vines under eCO2 conditions.

In this synthesis approach, the output of different CO2 enrichment experiments such as greenhouse and growth chamber trials will be compared to open top chamber (OTC) and Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) studies. Furthermore, the regional climate in which single field studies have been conducted plays a major role in terms of up and down regulation of CO2 induced processes, whereas in open or closed chamber systems a stable but artificial microclimate exists within the chamber.

Due to higher photosynthesis rates under eCO2 mature field grown vines showed higher transport capacity and larger sinks for additional carbohydrates produced under eCO2, thus grapevines increased in vegetative and reproductive growth. During fruit ripening single berry weight, bunch architecture and bunch compactness altered similarly for vines under eCO2 within the field and to a lower extent when it comes to short-term chamber and greenhouse trials. Regarding crop yield, no or little differences occurred for all varieties for the first year of investigation. Usually, higher yield emerged under eCO2 in the following season as explained by the grapevine’s reproductive cycle. Analyses of berries and must resulted mostly in alterations of malic and tartaric acid concentrations under eCO2 and was close linked to berry size. Sugar accumulation in berries depended on climatic factors and differed if vines were grown under warm or cool climate conditions in combination with CO2 enrichment. Elevated CO2 was also des- cribed to modify some berry colour parameters like anthocyanins, but in the end both syntheses were induced – stimulation and inhabitation of anthocyanin accumulation.

Overall, eCO2 resulted in a change of vegetative, generative and qualitative parameters of grapevines compared to an atmospheric CO2 concentration without affecting wine quality in general. Nevertheless, as carbon dioxide is one of many influencing climate factors on fruit and berry development it needs to be discussed within the context of future wine quality.

DOI:

Publication date: February 11, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Article

Authors

Yvette Wohlfahrt

Hochschule Geisenheim University, Department of General and Organic Viticulture, Von-Lade-Str. 1, 65366 Geisenheim, Germany

Contact the author*

Keywords

climate change, carbon dioxide (CO2), grapevine physiology, berry development

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY IN MONITORING THE WINE PRODUCTION

The complexity of the wine matrix makes the monitoring of the winemaking process crucial. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) along with chemometrics is considered an effective analytical tool combining good accuracy, robustness, high sample throughput, and “green character”. Portable and non-portable FTIR devices are already used by the wine industry for routine analysis. However, the analytical calibrations need to be enriched, and some others are still waiting to be thoroughly developed.

THE EFFECT OF BENTONITE FINING ON THE VOLATILE AND NON-VOLATILE PROFILE OF ITALIAN WHITE WINES

Marselan wines have an unusual high proportion of seed derived tannins from grapes having high proportions of skins, which are rich in tannins. But the causes behind this characteristic have not yet been identified. In vintage 2023 wines were made at experimental scale (9 kg by experimental unit) from Arinarnoa, Marselan and Tannat Vitis vinifera grape cultivars by traditional maceration, and by techniques aimed to increase the wine content in skin derived tannin: addition of extraction enzymes, addition at vatting of grape-skin enological tannins, or by extended maceration, known to increase the seed derived tannin contents of wines. Macerations were of 7 days, except in the extended macerations that were of 15 days.

EMERGENCE OF INORGANIC PHOSPHONATE RESIDUES IN GRAPEVINE PLANT PARTS, BERRIES AND WINES FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN FOLIAR SPRAYING

Inorganic phosphonates are known to effectively support the control of grapevine downy mildew in vi- ticulture. Their application helps the plant to induce an earlier and more effective pathogen defense. However, inorganic phosphonates have been banned in organic viticulture due to their classification as plant protection products since October 2013. Despite the ban, phosphonate has been recently detected in organic wines.

EXTRACTIBLE COMPOUNDS FROM MICROAGGLOMERATED CORK STOPPERS

After bottling, the wine continues to evolve during storage. The choice of the stopper is an important factor in this evolution. In addition to the oxygen permeability of the closure, the migration of stopper compounds into the wine can also have an impact on the wine organoleptic properties. Many studies have shown that transfers of volatile compounds from the stoppers into the wine can happen depending on the type of closure used (1). Moreover, when cork-made stoppers are used, the migration of phenolic compounds from the stopper into the wine can also occur (2, 3).

CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF A POLYPHENOLIC EXTRACT OBTAINED BY GREEN SUPERCRITICAL CO₂ EXTRACTION FROM RED GRAPE POMACE

Upgrading wine industry solid wastes is considered as one of the main strategies to support the circular economy. Red grape pomaces constitute a rich source of polyphenols, which have been shown to possess antioxidant properties and to provide benefits for human and animal health. The objective of this work was to obtain and characterise polyphenolic extracts from red grape pomaces via green supercritical CO₂ extraction using ethanol as a co-solvent, and to evaluate their antibacterial activity against susceptible and multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains of animal intestinal origin.