terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE AND WATER-LOSS DEHYDRATION CONDITIONS ON THE PATTERN OF FREE AND GLYCOSYLATED VOLATILE METABOLITES OF ITALIAN RED GRAPES

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE AND WATER-LOSS DEHYDRATION CONDITIONS ON THE PATTERN OF FREE AND GLYCOSYLATED VOLATILE METABOLITES OF ITALIAN RED GRAPES

Abstract

Post-harvest grape berries dehydration/withering are worldwide applied to produce high-quality sweet and dry wines (e.i., Vin Santo, Tokaji, Amarone della Valpolicella). Temperature and water loss impact grape metabolism [1] and are key variables in modulating the production of grape compounds of oenological interest, such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), secondary metabolites responsible for the aroma of the final wine.

The aim of this research was to assess the impact of post-harvest dehydration on free and glycosylated VOCs of two Italian red wine grapes, namely Nebbiolo and Aleatico, dehydrated in tunnel under controlled condition (varied temperature and weight-loss, at constant humidity and air flow). From these grapes Sforzato di Valtellina Passito DOCG and Elba Aleatico Passito DOCG, respectively.

The experimental plan followed a “Temperature (10°C, 15°C, 20°C, 25°C) x Weight loss (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%)” factorial design. Skin and juice free and glycosylated VOCs of grape berries were separately analysed by Solid Phase Extraction/Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (SPE/GC-MS) [2].

Results showed that skin and juice samples are well discriminated in both varieties, with skins exhibiting a greater aromatic richness, especially in terms of bound VOCs. In Nebbiolo grapes, weight loss showed a greater influence than temperature on free volatiles. This trend was not observed on free VOCs of Aleatico grapes, that were treated with more stressful dehydration conditions of temperature (15°C, 25°C) and weight loss (20%, 30%) compared to Nebbiolo grapes (10°C, 20°C; 10%, 20%).

Temperature seems to play an important role on bound VOCs of both grapes, albeit in a different form. In Nebbiolo grapes, low temperatures (10°C) showed positive correlations with the accumulation of aroma glycosidic precursors. In the case of Aleatico, which is a semi-aromatic variety, dehydration temperatures, appear to modulate terpenes pattern regardless of weight loss. Specifically, samples dehydrated at 15°C correlated with betalinalool, epoxylinalool, cis- and trans-linalool oxide, and geranic acid, while 25°C ones with cis- and trans-geraniol, cis- and trans-citral, α-terpineol, and citronellol.

These results are of interest for optimizing the grape dehydration process not only in an optic of management of product characteristics and varietal oenology, but also in a prospective of management of energy resources needed under controlled dehydration conditions.

 

1. Costantini et al., 2006. DOI: 10.1021/jf053117l
2. Piombino et al., 2022. DOI: 10.1111/ajgw.12521

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Article

Authors

Paola Piombino1, Elisabetta Pittari1, Alessandro Genovese2, Andrea Bellincontro3, Fabio Mencarelli4, Luigi Moio1

1. Department of Agricultural Sciences, Division of Vine and Wine Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Avellino 83100, Italy
2. Department of Agricultural Sciences, Division of Food Science and Technology, University of Naples Federico II, Portici (NA), 80055, Italy
3. DIBAF, University of Tuscia, Via De Lellis, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
4. Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, Pisa 56124, Italy

Contact the author*

Keywords

grapes dehydration, secondary metabolites, aromas, SPE/GC-MS

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

YEAST LEES OBTAINED AFTER STARMERELLA BACILLARIS FERMENTATION AS A SOURCE OF POTENTIAL COMPOUNDS TO IMPROVE SUSTAINABILITY IN WINE- MAKING

The yeast residue left over after wine-making, known as wine yeast lees, is a source of various compounds that are of interest for wine and food industry. In winemaking, yeast-derived glycocompounds and proteins represent an example of circular economy approach since they have been proven to reduce the need for bentonite and animal-based fining agents. This leads to a reduced environmental impact in the stabilization and fining processes in winemaking. (de Iseppi et al., 2020, 2021).

EFFECTS OF HYDROXYTYROSOL ON THE CHEMICAL PROFILE AND SENSORY ATTRIBUTES OF A RED TUSCAN WINE

The chemical profile and sensory attributes were studied in Borrigiano IGT Toscana wine (Italy), a blend of Sangiovese 85% and Cabernet Sauvignon 15% grapes harvested in September 2020, where 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (hydroxytyrosol, HT, [1]) was added to a 750-ml wine bottle in 3 different amounts (30, 60, 120 mg) and compared with the control (no HT addition). The study aimed to evaluate whether Polyphenol-HT1®, a high purity HT (>99%) produced by Nova Mentis using biotechnology, could be used as a supplement to sulfites and how it would impact the sensory and chemical profile of this wine [2]. Each sample was prepared in triplicate.

AROMATIC AND FERMENTATIVE PERFORMANCES OF HANSENIASPORA VINEAE IN DIFFERENT SEQUENTIAL INOCULATION PROTOCOLS WITH SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE FOR WHITE WINEMAKING

Hanseniaspora vineae (Hv) is a fermenting non-Saccharomyces yeast that compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) present some peculiar features on its metabolism that make it attractive for its use in wine production. Among them, it has been reported a faster yeast lysis and release of polysaccharides, as well as increased ß-glucosidase activity. Hv also produces distinctive aroma compounds, including elevated levels of fermentative compounds such as ß-phenylethyl acetate and norisoprenoids like safranal. However, it is known for its high nutritional requirements, resulting in prolonged and sluggish fermentations, even when complemented with Sc strain and nutrients.

MODULATION OF YEAST-DERIVED AROMA COMPOUNDS IN CHARDONNAY WINES USING ENCAPSULATED DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE TO CONTROL NUTRIENT RELEASE

Yeast-derived aroma compounds are the result of different and complex biochemical pathways that mainly occur during alcoholic fermentation. Many of them are related -but not limited- to the availability of nutrients in the fermentation medium and linked to nitrogen metabolism and biomass produced. Besides, the metabolic phase of yeast also regulates the expression of many enzymes involved in the formation of aroma active compounds. The work investigates the overall effect of continuous supplementation of nutrients during alcoholic fermentation of a grape must on the volatile composition of wines.

OENOLOGICAL TANNINS FOR PREVENTING THE LIGHT-STRUCK TASTE IN WHITE AND ROSÉ WINES

The light exposure of wine can be detrimental as a relevant loss of aromas takes place [1] and light-induced reactions can occur. The latter involves riboflavin (RF), a photosensitive compound, that is fully reduced by acquiring two electrons. When the electron-donor is methionine, the light-struck taste (LST) can appear leading to cooked cabbage, onion and garlic odours-like [2]. The use of oenological tannins can limit the appearance of LST in both model wine [3] and white wine [4]. This research aimed to evaluate the impact of certain oenological tannins, selected in a previous study as the most effective against LST [5], in both white and rosé wines.