GiESCO 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 GiESCO 2019 9 The state-of-the-art of grapevine biotechnology and new breeding technologies (NBTS)

The state-of-the-art of grapevine biotechnology and new breeding technologies (NBTS)

Abstract

Context of the review – The manipulation of the genetic basis controlling grapevine adaptation and phenotypic plasticity can be performed either by classical genetics or biotechnologies. In the last 15 years, considerable knowledge has accumulated about the grapevine genome as well as the mechanisms involved in the interaction of the vine with the environment, pests and diseases. Despite the difficulties associated with genetic mapping in this species (allele diversity, chimerism, long generation intervals…), several major QTLs controlling important vegetative or reproductive traits have been identified. Considering the huge genotypic and phenotypic diversities existing in Vitis, breeding offers a substantial range of options to improve the performances of cultivars. However, even if marker-assisted selection was largely developed to shorten breeding programs, the selection of improved cultivars, whether for agronomic traits or disease tolerances, is still long and uncertain. Moreover, breeding by crossing does not preserve cultivar genetic background, when the wine industry and market being still based on varietal wines.

Significance of the review – In grapevine, pioneering biotechnologies were set up in the 1960’s to propagate and/or clean the material from micro-organisms. In the 1990’s, the basis of genetic engineering was primary established through biolistic or Agrobacterium with several derived technologies refined in the last 10 years. The latest advance is represented by a group of technologies based on genome editing which allows a much more precise modification of the genome. These technologies, so-called NBT (new breeding technologies), which theoretically do not deconstruct the phenotype of existing cultivars, could be potentially better accepted by the wine industry and consumers than previous GMO approaches. This paper review the current state-of-the-art of the biotechnologies available for grapevine genome manipulation and future prospects for genetic improvement.

DOI:

Publication date: June 19, 2020

Issue: GiESCO 2019

Type: Article

Authors

Lorenza DALLA COSTA (1), Mickael MALNOY (1), David LECOURIEUX (2), Laurent DELUC (3), Fatma OUAKED- LECOURIEUX (2), Mark R. THOMAS (4) and Laurent TORREGROSA (5)

(1) Dept. of Biology and Genomic of Fruit Plants, Foundation E. Mach, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
(2) ISVV-EGFV, CNRS, INRA, Uni Bordeaux, 33883 Villenave d’Ornon, France
(3) Dept. of Horticulture, Oregon State University, OR 97331, Corvallis, USA
(4) CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Hartley Grove, Urrbrae SA 5064, Australia
(5) AGAP, Montpellier University, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier, France

Contact the author

Keywords

Grapevine, biotechnologies, gene transfer, genome editing, genetic improvement

Tags

GiESCO 2019 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

Physiological and growth reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt to row orientation and soil water status

Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.

Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California

San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.

The effects of cane girdling on berry texture properties and the concentration of some aroma compounds in three table grape cultivars

The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.

Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot Blanc grape

The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.

Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture

Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.