Context of the review – The manipulation of the genetic basis controlling grapevine adaptation and phenotypic plasticity can be performed either by classical genetics or biotechnologies. In the last 15 years, considerable knowledge has accumulated about the grapevine genome as well as the mechanisms involved in the interaction of the vine with the environment, pests and diseases. Despite the difficulties associated with genetic mapping in this species (allele diversity, chimerism, long generation intervals…), several major QTLs controlling important vegetative or reproductive traits have been identified. Considering the huge genotypic and phenotypic diversities existing in Vitis, breeding offers a substantial range of options to improve the performances of cultivars. However, even if marker-assisted selection was largely developed to shorten breeding programs, the selection of improved cultivars, whether for agronomic traits or disease tolerances, is still long and uncertain. Moreover, breeding by crossing does not preserve cultivar genetic background, when the wine industry and market being still based on varietal wines.
Significance of the review – In grapevine, pioneering biotechnologies were set up in the 1960’s to propagate and/or clean the material from micro-organisms. In the 1990’s, the basis of genetic engineering was primary established through biolistic or Agrobacterium with several derived technologies refined in the last 10 years. The latest advance is represented by a group of technologies based on genome editing which allows a much more precise modification of the genome. These technologies, so-called NBT (new breeding technologies), which theoretically do not deconstruct the phenotype of existing cultivars, could be potentially better accepted by the wine industry and consumers than previous GMO approaches. This paper review the current state-of-the-art of the biotechnologies available for grapevine genome manipulation and future prospects for genetic improvement.
Authors: Lorenza DALLA COSTA (1), Mickael MALNOY (1), David LECOURIEUX (2), Laurent DELUC (3), Fatma OUAKED- LECOURIEUX (2), Mark R. THOMAS (4) and Laurent TORREGROSA (5)
(1) Dept. of Biology and Genomic of Fruit Plants, Foundation E. Mach, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
(2) ISVV-EGFV, CNRS, INRA, Uni Bordeaux, 33883 Villenave d’Ornon, France
(3) Dept. of Horticulture, Oregon State University, OR 97331, Corvallis, USA
(4) CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Hartley Grove, Urrbrae SA 5064, Australia
(5) AGAP, Montpellier University, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier, France
Keywords: Grapevine, biotechnologies, gene transfer, genome editing, genetic improvement