OENO IVAS 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 OENO IVAS 9 OENO IVAS 2019 9 Analytical developments from grape to wine, spirits : omics, chemometrics approaches… 9 Influence of the malolactic fermentation on wine metabolomics or drastic metabolomics changes due to malolactic fermentation

Influence of the malolactic fermentation on wine metabolomics or drastic metabolomics changes due to malolactic fermentation


It is well known that lactic acid bacteria modify the wine volatile compound. However, very few data are available regarding metabolite changes that occurred during the malolactic fermentation (MLF). In order to have a clearer picture of the metabolic signature of the bacteria in wine during the MLF, we have analyzed the exometabolome before and after MLF of wine fermented with 6 different yeast strains and 2 different bacteria. To this purpose, metabolomics analyses were carried out by LC-TOF-MS. 

The PCA analyses of the metabolomics data clearly distinguish samples at the end of alcoholic fermentation from samples after malolactic fermentation and samples from co-inoculation. These results confirmed the impact of bacteria on wine metabolome but also underlined the fact that co-inoculation of bacteria with yeast in must does not result in the same wine than sequential inoculation, from a metabolite point of view. This result clearly indicates that both matrix (must or wine) and yeast bacteria interactions are responsible for the observed differences. A focus on the comparison of wine before and after malolactic fermentation conducted by the lactic acid bacteria VP41 revealed a clear cut difference between the wines as represented by PLS-DA. These results confirmed the drastic changes of the wines due to malolactic fermentation. Some of the compounds catabolised or synthesized by the bacteria during MLF allows to identify specific metabolic pathway involved during MLF such as for example glycosyl hydrolases, which convert flavonoid glycosides to the corresponding aglycones, and esterase, degrading methyl gallate, tannins, or phenolic acid ester.


Publication date: June 19, 2020

Issue: OENO IVAS 2019

Type: Article


Liu Youzhong (1,2), Gougeon Régis (3), Bou-Déléris Magali (4), Krieger-Weber Sybille (4), Schmitt-Kopplin Philippe (5,6),

Presenting author

Alexandre Hervé3

1-Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Advanced Database Research and Modelling (ADReM), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
2-Biomedical Informatics Network Antwerp (Biomina), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
3-UMR PAM Université de Bourgogne/AgroSup Dijon, Institut Universitaire de la Vigne et du Vin, Jules Guyot, Rue Claude Ladrey, BP 27877, 21078 Dijon Cedex, France
4-Lallemand SAS, 19 rue des Briquetiers, Blagnac, France
5-Chair of Analytical Food Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany
6-Research Unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

Contact the author


bacteria, malolactic fermentation, metabolomic, wine 


IVES Conference Series | OENO IVAS 2019


Related articles…


Champagne is a well-known wine region in Northern France with distinct terroirs and three main grape varieties. As for any vineyard, wine quality is highly linked to the microbiological characteristics of the raw materials. However, Champagne grape microbiota, especially its fungal component, has yet to be fully characterized. Our study focused on describing this mycobiota, from vine to small scale model wine, for the two main Champagne grape varieties, Pinot Noir and Meunier, using complementary cultural and omics approaches.

NMR profiling of grape musts from some italian regions

With wine fraud, being a widespread problem [1], the need for more sophisticated and precise analytical methods of its detection remains ever persistent.


A lot of work has been done on the impact of Botrytis on the foam of sparkling wines. This work often concerns wines produced in cool regions, where Botrytis is the dominant fungal pathogen. However, in southern countries such as Spain, in particularly hot years such as 2022, the majority fungal pathogen is sometimes Rhizopus. Like Botrytis, Rhizopus is a fungus that produces an aspartic protease.

Impact of addition of fumaric acid and glutathion at the end of alcoholic fermentation on Cabernet-Sauvignon wine

Viticulture and oenology face two major challenges today, climate change and the reduction in the use of inputs. Climate change induces low acidity and microbiologically less stable wines

Simulating the impact of climate change on viticultural systems in various European vineyards

Aim: Global climate change affects regional climates and hold implications for wine growing regions worldwide (Jones, 2007, 2015; van Leeuwen and Darriet, 2016). The prospect of 21st century climate change consequently is one of the major challenges facing the wine industry (Keller, 2010).