terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 MODULATION OF YEAST-DERIVED AROMA COMPOUNDS IN CHARDONNAY WINES USING ENCAPSULATED DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE TO CONTROL NUTRIENT RELEASE

MODULATION OF YEAST-DERIVED AROMA COMPOUNDS IN CHARDONNAY WINES USING ENCAPSULATED DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE TO CONTROL NUTRIENT RELEASE

Abstract

Yeast-derived aroma compounds are the result of different and complex biochemical pathways that mainly occur during alcoholic fermentation. Many of them are related -but not limited- to the availability of nutrients in the fermentation medium and linked to nitrogen metabolism and biomass produced. Besides, the metabolic phase of yeast also regulates the expression of many enzymes involved in the formation of aroma active compounds. The work investigates the overall effect of continuous supplementation of nutrients during alcoholic fermentation of a grape must on the volatile composition of wines. To this aim, diammonium phosphate was encapsulated mixed with a hydrophobic lipid matrix in two different supports designed to continuously release the salt for a final addition of 400 mg/L: a tablet-shaped support (Tb) of ~ 4 cm diameter and spherical microcapsules of ~0.2-1 mm diameter (Mc) obtained through spray cooling. The alcoholic fermentation was performed in triplicate at semi-industrial scale standardised conditions of turbidity (~100 NTU), yeast inoculum (200 mg/L) and fermentation temperature (19°C). Results were compared to those of wines fermented in absence of ammonium addition or supplemented with the same dose at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation.

Among the metabolic compounds studied by GC-MS/MS, the production of acetate esters of higher alcohols was favoured by the Mc continuous ammonium release. This protocol almost doubled the total acetates formed in the untreated wines and increased ~33% and ~40% of those obtained with the one-shot supplementation and the Tb protocol respectively. Among alcohols, 2-phenylethanol and 2-methylbu-tanol were higher in the untreated wines and 1-propanol in the Mc protocol compared to others, even if the total amount of alcohols was not differentiated. Neither total fatty acids nor the corresponding ethyl esters were influenced by the nutrition protocol, even if some compounds were affected: ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate were higher in the Mc protocol, differentiated from the Tb and one-shot protocols. Overall, nitrogen supplementation increased the total amount of esters in wines, being the Mc protocol the most performing, differentiated from the one-shot and Tb protocols that were statistically indistinguishable between them.

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

Tomas Roman¹, Mauro Paolini¹, Adelaide Gallo1,2, Laura Barp1,3, Luigino Bortolotto⁴, Nicola Cappello¹, Roberto Larcher¹

1. Fondazione Edmund Mach—Technology Transfer Center, via Edmund Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’ Adige, Italy
2. C3A – Università degli Studi di Trento, via Edmund Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’ Adige, Italy
3. Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, via Sondrio 2/A, 33100 Udine, Italy
4. Sintal Srl. Via dell’Artigianato n. 9/11, 36033, Isola Vicentina (VI), Italia

Contact the author*

Keywords

yeast nutrients, diammonium phosphate, aroma compounds, continuous supplementation

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

VOLATILE AND GLYCOSYLATED MARKERS OF SMOKE IMPACT: EVOLUTION IN BOTTLED WINE

Smoke impact in wines is caused by a wide range of volatile phenols found in wildfire smoke. These compounds are absorbed and accumulate in berries, where they may also become glycosylated. Both volatile and glycosylated forms eventually end up in wine where they can cause off-flavors. The impact on wine aroma is mainly attributed to volatile phenols, while in-mouth hydrolysis of glycosylated forms may be responsible for long-lasting “ashy” aftertastes (1).

WINE CONSUMER TRADE-OFF BETWEEN ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS AND SUSTAINABLE CLAIMS. AN EXPERIMENT ON RED WINES FROM BORDEAUX REGION

In economics, the perception of wine quality is not limited to sensorial characteristics: an indication of the region of production significantly affects the perception of quality and consumers’ WTP ([1]; [2]). However, [3] or more recently [4] show that even if a wine has an organic label, the taste of wine remains the predominant criterion in consumer preferences. The contribution of our experiment is to evaluate the impact of responsible attributes (organic label, Non Added Sulfites, HVE certification) on the appreciation of several red wines on the market. More than 280 consumers participated to the present study and they perform 25 tastings divided into 5 different sessions. 20 different red wines from Bordeaux Area are tasted.

ABOUT THE ROLE PLAYED BY THE DIFFERENT POLYPHENOLS ON OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND ON THE ACCUMULATION OF ACETALDEHYDE ANDSTRECKER ALDEHYDES DURING WINE OXIDATION

In a previous work1, it was suggested that the different contents in delphinidin and catechin of the grapes were determinant on the O2 consumption and Strecker aldehyde (SAs) accumulation rates. Higher delphinidin seemed to be related to a faster O2 consumption and a smaller SAs accumulation rate, and the opposite was observed regarding catechin.
In the present paper, these observations were fully corroborated by adding synthetic delphinidin to a wine model containing polyphenolic fractions (PFs) extracted from garnacha and synthetic catechin to a wine model containing PF extracted from tempranillo: The delphinin-containing garnacha model consumed O₂ significantly faster and accumulated significantly smaller amounts of SAs than the original garnacha model, and the catechin-containing tempranillo model, consumed O2 significantly slower and accumulated significantly higher amounts of SAs than the original tempranillo model.

EVALUATION OF A SEAWEED EXTRACT OF RUGULOPTERYX OKAMURAE AGAINST ERYSIPHE NECATOR IN GRAPEVINE

Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe necator, is a widespread disease that causes high economical losses in viticulture. The main strategy to control the disease is the recurrent application of sulphur based phytochemical compounds. However, in order to reduce their accumulation in the environment and promote the sustainability of the sector, the European Commission has applied restrictions to the number of pesticide treatments and the maximum quantity of fungicides to be applied in viticulture. Seaweeds, in particular macroalgae, are marine resources rich in sulphated polysaccharides with bio-protective potential for the plant, representing an environmentally-friendly alternative approach for sustainable wine production.

THE POTENTIAL USE OF SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDES TO PREVENT THE OXIDATION OF ROSÉ WINES

Lately, rosé wine is rapidly increasing its popularity worldwide. Short-time macerations with the red skin of the grapes cause the partial extraction of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the pinki-sh-salmon hue of rosé wines. However, the low quantity of tannins (antioxidants) and richness in phenolic acids, which can be easily oxidized into yellowish pigments, tend to predispose rosé wines to an undesirable browning. Although the use of SO₂ for the prevention of oxidation is highly extended, this practice is expected to be reduced. Therefore, the search for alternative oenological adjuvants that prevent the oxidation and browning of rosé wines is highly desired.