Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Macrowine 9 Macrowine 2021 9 Grapevine diversity and viticultural practices for sustainable grape growing 9 Application to grapevine leaves of different doses of urea at two phenology stage: effect on the aromatic composition of red wine

Application to grapevine leaves of different doses of urea at two phenology stage: effect on the aromatic composition of red wine

Abstract

AIM: This research aimed to study the effect and efficiency of foliar application of urea on the aromatic composition of red wines elaborated from Tempranillo grapes.

METHODS: This study was carried out in 2018 and 2019. The plot was located in the North of Spain. The grapes were Vitis vinifera L. Tempranillo and grafted on 110 Richter rootstocks. The vine-training system was gobelet and leave twelve buds per vine. The plot was not fertilized and not irrigated, during the two study seasons. The treatments were: control (C), whose plants were sprayed with water; and three different doses of urea: plants were sprayed with 3 kg N/ha (U3), 6 kg N/ha (U6) and 9 kg N/ha (U9). The treatments were performed at two different phenological states, pre-veraison (Pre) and veraison (Ver). Also, each treatment was repeated one week later. The applications were carried out early in the morning to maximize the absorption of urea. Treatments were organized in a complete randomised block design and were performed in triplicate. The grapes were picked at optimum maturity and then, were destemmed and crushed. Each treatment was fermented on stainless steel tanks. The alcoholic fermentation was started by inoculating with commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Uvaferm VRB and the malolactic fermentation was inoculated with commercial Oenococcus oeni strain Lalvin SILKA. After malolactic fermentation, the aliquots of each wine were frozen to determine their volatile composition. Analysis of volatile compounds from the wine was carried out by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) [1]. Quantification of compounds was performed with an internal standard method. Finally, the results were studied statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA).

RESULTS: In the two seasons, the higher alcohols were the most abundant fermentative compounds found in wines, highlighting isoamyl alcohols and 2-phenylethanol. In 2018, the content of all volatile compounds was increased by the treatment U3-Pre. Nevertheless, the treatments carried out in veraison had different effects. The acetate esters and the sum of ethyl hexanoate, octanoate and decanoate were increased by U9 treatment. Also, U6 increased the concentration of total ethyl esters, total esters, and other volatile compounds. However, the higher alcohols were lower in the all treated wines. In 2019, the wines elaborated from grapes treated with U3-Pre presented a higher concentration of aromatic compounds. Moreover, U3-Ver improved the content of alcohols, acetate esters, the sum of ethyl hexanoate, octanoate and decanoate, and total esters; while, the other volatile compounds were risen by U9-Ver.

CONCLUSIONS

In the two seasons, the lowest dose of urea (U3) applied in pre-veraison improved the aromatic composition of Tempranillo wine.

DOI:

Publication date: September 2, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article

Authors

Rebeca Murillo-Peña

Institute of Grapevine and Wine Sciences (Spanish National Research Council, Government of La Rioja, University of La Rioja) ,Teresa, GARDE-CERDÁN, Institute of Grapevine and Wine Sciences (Spanish National Research Council, Government of La Rioja, University of La Rioja)  José María, MARTÍNEZ-VIDAURRE, Institute of Grapevine and Wine Sciences (Spanish National Research Council, Government of La Rioja, University of La Rioja)

Contact the author

Keywords

pre-veraison, veraison, tempranillo, volatile compounds, wine, urea, foliar application

Citation

Related articles…

Chemical profiling and sensory analysis of wines from resistant hybrid grape cultivars vs conventional wines

Recently, there has been a shift toward sustainable wine production, according to EU policy (F2F and Green Deal), to reduce pesticide usage, improve workplace health and safety, and prevent the impacts of climate change. These trends have gained the interest of consumers and winemakers. The cultivation of disease resistant hybrid grape cultivars (DRHGC), known as ‘PIWI’ grapes can help with these objectives [1]. This study aimed to profile white and red wines produced from DRHGC in South Tyrol (Italy). Wines produced from DRHGCs were compared with conventional wines produced by the same wineries. The measured parameters were residual sugars, organic acids, alcohol content, pigments and other phenolics by LC-QqQ/MS, colorimetric indexes (CIELab); and volatile profiles (HS-SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS [2]).

Construction of a 3D vineyard model using very high resolution airborne images

In recent years there has been a growth in interest and number of research studies regarding the application of remote optical and thermal sensing by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in agriculture and viticulture. Many papers report on the use of images to map or estimate the growth and water status of plants, or the heterogeneity of different parcels. Most often, NDVI or other similar indices are used.

Study of the content of amino acids and biogenic amines in sparkling red wines

The production of red sparkling wines is lower in Spain in comparison with the winemaking of white or rosé sparkling wines. In red sparkling wine processing it is essential to obtain suitable base wines that should have moderate alcohol content, high acidity, good color values, an adequate mouth-feel and a sweet tannin. Grapes for sparkling wine production have to be harvested at low maturity stages, with lower alcohol contents and higher acidities, which will that the phenolic maturity of the grapes is also low, showing green tannins. This paper analyses different treatments in order to minimize these inconveniences: cold maceration-prefermentation and delestage to elaborate the grapes with lower maturity, must nanofiltration, and the partial osmosis of the wines made from grapes with an adequate maturity degree.

Evaluation of grape and wine quality according to harvest date, in a tropical region in Northeast Brazil

The Northeast region of Brazil is characterized by a semi-arid climate, has produced tropical wines since twenty years ago. The region is located at 09º 09’ South, 40º 22’ West, 365.5 m

Impact of the non-volatile matrix composition on red wine aroma release and perception of olfactory and oral cues

Aroma and mouthfeel cues are the main characteristics defining red wine quality. During wine tasting, perceptual and physical-chemical phenomena leading to mutual interactions between volatiles and non-volatiles sensory active compounds, can occur. Aroma perception depends on the release of volatiles from wine, that is affected by wine constituents present in the medium (Pittari et al. 2021; Lyu et al. 2021). Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the non-volatile wine matrix composition (polyphenols, PPh) on the release and perception of red wine aromas by an experiment of matrix enrichment.