Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Application of ultrasonic and refractometric measurements in enological samples and related model solutions

Application of ultrasonic and refractometric measurements in enological samples and related model solutions

Abstract

AIM: The refractive index is a basic optical property of materials and a key tool for the determination of major components in musts, such as sugars. Ultrasonic based technology is emerging as a well-suited tool for monitoring food processes and quality, and in particular it has been applied in predicting the alcohol content and measuring the ultrasonic velocity in enological products. The aim of this study is to combine the applications of these two technologies to quantify alcohol and residual sugar in real and model enological samples. The effects of major wine and must components on the combined application of these analytical tools are investigated.

METHODS: Refractometric and sonic Brix values were determined using a LP10 sensor (Maselli Misure, Parma, Italy) working at controlled temperature. The selection of the real enological samples for the study has been made during the 2020 harvest in South Tyrol (Italy). The model solutions were prepared at different combinations of different levels of ethanol in water, glucose, tartaric acid, malic acid and gallic acid as major wine components. For these model solutions, firstly the levels of each component were chosen upon a likelihood criterium, then to reduce the number of analyses to run. A refined randomized selection of these combinations was chosen according to a D-Optimal experimental design, calculated on the R-based application CAT, with a large enough number of selected experiments to ensure representativeness. The statistical analysis of the results for the real and model samples has been performed on CAT and XLStat (Addinsoft, France).

RESULTS: A statistical analysis of the obtained results allowed to investigate the effects of the major constituents on the Brix and alcohol determinations by combined refractometric and acoustic analyses, in real and model enological samples. The calculated models showed that the effects of interactions between variables/chemical components and non-linear contributions cannot be a priori ruled out in order to accurately explain the instrumental responses to the variations of these major components. As an alternative, the evaluation of separate models for more limited experimental domains (e.g. only musts, only dry wines or musts undergoing fermentation) is also discussed. The effects of the residual sugar and alcohol content on the determination of refractive and sonic Brix are discussed in detail.

CONCLUSIONS

In samples collected during fermentations or in wines, the application of this combined technique for residual sugar and alcohol determinations could be feasible, provided that the full dependence of these refractometric and acoustic parameters on the major sample components and their interactions is well understood, and the related mathematical models validated over the widest possible range of enological samples. Some mathematical models have been proposed and discussed along with validation.

DOI:

Publication date: September 7, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article

Authors

Matteo Sesenna

Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano, Italy; Oenolab, NOITechpark, via Alessandro Volta 13, 39100 Bolzano BZ, Italy,Edoardo, LONGO, Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano, Italy; Oenolab, NOITechpark, via Alessandro Volta 13, 39100 Bolzano BZ, Italy  Alessandro, FORNASIER, University of Turin (Italy), DISAFA – Food Science and Technology  Luca ROLLE University of Turin (Italy), DISAFA – Food Science and Technology  Ulrich PEDRI, Institute for Fruit Growing and Viticulture, Laimburg Research Center, Laimburg 6, I-39051 Pfatten, Italy  Danila CHIOTTI, Institute for Fruit Growing and Viticulture, Laimburg Research Center, Laimburg 6, I-39051 Pfatten, Italy  Emanuele, BOSELLI, Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano, Italy; Oenolab, NOITechpark, via Alessandro Volta 13, 39100 Bolzano BZ, Italy

Contact the author

Keywords

refractometric brix; ultrasonic brix; sugars; ethanol

Citation

Related articles…

Assessing bunch architecture for grapevine yield forecasting by image analysis 

It is fundamental for wineries to know the potential yield of their vineyards as soon as possible for future planning of winery logistics. As such, non-invasive image-based methods are being investigated for early yield prediction. Many of these techniques have limitations that make it difficult to implement for practical use commercially. The aim of this study was to assess whether yield can be estimated using images taken in-field with a smartphone at different phenological stages.

Mean polymerization degree of proanthocyanidins of grape seeds, skins and wines from Agiorgitiko (cv. Vitis vinifera): Differences among vintages

Grape phenolic compounds are very important constituents of red wine because, in addition to their antioxidant properties, they contribute to color, astringency and bitterness, oxidation reactions, interactions with proteins and ageing behavior of wines. The aim of our study was to assess the structural characteristics of grape and wine proanthocyanidins of Agiorgitiko variety and to evaluate the influence of the vintage year. Twelve vineyard locations were designated in the Nemea wine region. For three consecutive years (2012-2014), the grapes were harvested at technological maturity and the method of phloroglucinolysis was employed to determine the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and subunit composition of the samples.

Nuove soluzioni e strumenti per l’agricoltura e la viticoltura di precisione

GEOSPHERA s. r. l. e TERR.A.IN. CNS, forti della grande esperienza dei loro collaboratori nell’ambito delle scienze naturali, della geologia, della geofisica e dell’informatica, garantiscono risposte innovative alle problematiche della moderna agricoltura rivolgendosi direttamente ai viticoltori, ai commercianti vinicoli ed ai liberi professionisti.

Defoliation timing impacts berry secondary metabolites and sunburn damage

Sunburn is a physiological disorder that leads to yield and quality losses in a range of fruits such as grapes and apples. It affects the visual appearance and the composition of the fruit, leading to irreversible changes and ultimately, cell death in extreme situations.

From geomorphological analysis to terroirs geo-pedological zonation: the Madiran and Pacherenc of Vic-Bilh A.O.C. as case of study

L’aire des A.O.C. Madiran et Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh est située sur le piémont nord-occidental des Pyrénées, au nord du cône de Ger.