An organoleptic defect, called fresh mushrooms off-flavor, appeared in wines and spirits since the 2000’s. Numerous researches demonstrated that octen-3-one, octan-3-ol and octen-3-ol (C8 compounds) were involved in the mushroom off-flavor in wines (Pallotta et al., 1998), (Darriet et al., 2002). Botrytis cinerea and other moldsplayed a role in the metabolism of such molecules directly on the grapes (La Guerche et al., 2006). Moreover, producers couldn’t detect this off-flavor in must but it appeared only in finished wines and the intensity can vary considerably during ageing of wines. Several biogenesis pathways have been proposed to explain the mushroom off-flavor in foods. In the fungus kingdom, the formation of C8 molecules came from the transformation of linoleic acid under the action of several enzymes (Wurzenberger & Grosch, 1984). Glycosidic precursors of octen-3-ol have been identified in several plants such as recently in soybean (Matsui et al., 2018). However, under oenological conditions, no clear mechanism has been established yet. AIM: So, the aim of this work was to (i) identify glycosidic precursors of C8 compounds and (ii) to evaluate the influence of different rots on the glycosylated fractions of different grape varieties. For this purpose, we studied different grades of rot defined by visual intensity (healthy, 1-5%, 10-15% and 20-25% of rots) of grapes and musts of Meunier, Pinot noir and Chardonnay affected by Botrytis cinerea, Powdery mildew and Crustomyces subabruptus. METHODS: From analytical point of view, glycosylated precursors were extracted on C18 cartridges (Lichlorut RP-18, 500 mg),then cleaved by a beta-glycosidase enzyme (Rapidase Revelation Aroma, 40°C, Overnight) and aglycones were analyzed byGC-MS (FS and SIM mode) as reported by Schneider in 2001. RESULTS: For the first time, we identified a glycosylated fraction able to release fresh mushroom aroma (octen-3-one, octen-3-ol, octan-3-ol) in Meunier and Pinot noir musts. Indeed, contaminated musts of Pinot noir treated by beta glucosidase enzyme released three times more octen-3-one than control. In the samples infected with Powdery mildew, we didn’t observe any production of these glycosides. Botrytis cinerea seemed to decrease the level of octen-3-one glycoside(s) as soon as level contamination reached at least 1%. Finally, a Pinot noir must contaminated by Crustomyces subabruptus involved an increase of the glycosylated fraction responsible for the octen-3-one by 31% in comparison with uncontaminated sample. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the identification of a glycosylated fraction able to release fresh mushroom aroma compounds opens avenue to better understand the source of this specific taint and constitutes the first step to help winemakers to avoid off-flavor.
Authors: Léa Delcros – MHCS, Comité Champagne, Epernay, France,Teddy GODDET, SPO, Univ Montpellier INRAE, Institut agro, Montpellier, France Sylvie COLLAS, Comité Champagne, Epernay, France Marion HERVE, MHCS, Epernay, France Bruno BLONDIN, SPO, Univ Montpellier INRAE, Institut agro, Montpellier, France Aurélie ROLAND, SPO, Univ Montpellier, INRAE, Institut agro, Montpellier, France
Keywords: octen-3-one, octen-3-ol, glycosides, mushroom off-flavor, wine, botrytis cinerea, powdery mildew, crustomyces subabruptus