Autochthonous yeasts: a microbiological tool to exalt the quality of the apulian sparkling wine

Abstract

The selection, characterization, and recruitment of autochthonous yeast strains to drive the alcoholic fermentation process is a highly researched practice because it allows the differentiation of the organoleptic properties of wines, assuring process standardization, reducing fermentation times and improving the quality and safety of the final products [1, 2]. Sparkling wines are “special wines” obtained by secondary fermentation of the base wine. ​In the traditional method (Champenoise method), the re-fermentation takes place in the bottle after the addition to the base wine of the so-called tirage solution. This step, also known as prise de mousse, is followed by an aging period characterized by the release of compounds from the yeast cells that affect the organoleptic properties of the final product. The use of autochthonous yeasts as starter cultures for secondary fermentation is one of the recent innovations proposed to enhance and differentiate these wines’ sensory quality [3,4]. Apulia is the second Italian wine-producing region, and its productive chain is now going through a qualitative evolution by implementing the employment of innovative approaches to exalt the peculiar properties of regional wines. This enhancement is also pointed out by the increasing production of sparkling wines by indigenous grape cultivars [4]. We have technologically characterized several autochthonous strains belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae species isolated in the Apulian region, firstly at the lab scale and, successively, tested in the winery for both induce alcoholic fermentation in base wine and re-fermentation of white and rosè sparkling wines. For the first time, we evaluated the fermentative properties of selected yeast strains, through a non-targeted metabolomic approach based on the correlation between the volatolomic profile determined by GC-MS and the chemical profile obtained by HPLC-HRMS. Also, we highlighted the important role of yeasts to enhance not only the volatolomic profile but also the phenolic fraction of fermented wines. This confirms that the choice of an autochthonous strain positively modulates the chemistry of wine, with a potential impact on the global organoleptic properties of the final sparkling wine. This is the first report on the use of autochthonous strains isolated in the Salento area (Apulia, Southern Italy) for secondary fermentation to produce sparkling wine. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the use of autochthonous strains in sparkling wine has been tested using an integrated non-target metabolomics approach. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Apulia Region projects: “Innovazione nella tradizione: tecnologie innovative per esaltare le qualità dei vini autoctoni spumante della murgia barese-INVISPUBA” (P.S.R. Puglia 2014/2020 -Misura 16.2).

DOI:

Publication date: September 15, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article

Authors

Maria Tufariello 

CNR–Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), via Prov. le, Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy,Antonino Rizzuti, Politecnico di Bari, DICATECh, via Orabona 4, 701245 Bari, Italy; Biagia Musio, Politecnico di Bari, DICATECh, via Orabona 4, 701245 Bari, Italy; Vito Gallo: Politecnico di Bari, DICATECh, via Orabona 4, 701245 Bari, Italy—Innovative Solutions S.r.l., Spin off del Politecnico di Bari, zona H 150/B, 70015 Noci (BA), Italy Piero Mastrorilli: Politecnico di Bari, DICATECh, via Orabona 4, 701245 Bari, Italy—Innovative Solutions S.r.l., Spin off del Politecnico di Bari, zona H 150/B, 70015 Noci (BA), Italy; Vittorio Capozzi: CNR–Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), via Michele Protano, 71121 Foggia FG; Francesco Grieco: CNR–Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), via Prov. le, Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy

Contact the author

Keywords

sparkling wine, autochthonous yeast, volatolomic profile, phenolic fraction

Citation

Related articles…

Aromatic profile of six different clones of Chardonnay grape berries in Minas Gerais (Brazil)

Aromas are one of the key points in food analysis since they are related to character, quality and consequently consumer acceptance. It is not different in the winery industry, where the aromatic profile is a combination of viticultural and oenological practices. Based on the development of more aromatic clones and on the potential to produce sparkling wines at Caldas, in the southern region of Minas Gerais (Brazil) (21°55´S and 46°23´W, altitude 1,100m), the aim of this work was the determination of volatile compounds in six different clones of Chardonnay grape berries to better understand which compounds add bouquet to the wine, and additionally comprehend the impacts of the edaphoclimatic and annual conditions on the improvement of grape-growing and winemaking practices.

Screening of different commercial wine yeast strains: the effect of sugar and copper additions on fermentation and volatile acidity production

The aims of this study were to examine the effect of high sugar concentrations of must and copper residues on different commercial wine yeasts. Copper originating from pesticides has been known to inhibit yeast, but it’s effect on fermentation performance and VA production of different yeast strains had not been investigated in detail.

Using δ13C and hydroscapes as a tool for discriminating cultivar specific drought response

Measurement of carbon isotope discrimination in berry juice sugars at maturity (δ13C) provides an integrated assessment of water use efficiency (WUE) during the period of berry ripening, and when collected over multiple seasons can be used as an indication of drought stress response. Berry juice δ13C measurements were carried out on 48 different varieties planted in a common garden experiment in Bordeaux, France from 2014 through 2021 and were paired with midday and predawn leaf water potential measurements on the same vines in a subset of six varieties. The aim was to discriminate a large panel of varieties based on their stomatal behaviour and potentially identify hydraulic traits characterizing drought tolerance by comparing δ13C and hydroscapes (the visualisation of plant stomatal behaviour as a response to predawn water potential). Cluster analysis found that δ13C values are likely affected by the differing phenology of each variety, resulting in berry ripening of different varieties taking place under different stress conditions within the same year. We accounted for these phenological differences and found that cluster analysis based on specific δ13C metrics created a classification of varieties that corresponds well to our current empirical understanding of their relative drought tolerances. In addition, we analysed the water potential regulation of the subset of six varieties (using the hydroscape approach) and found that it was well correlated with some δ13C metrics. Surprisingly, a variety’s water potential regulation (specifically its minimum critical leaf water potential under water deficit) was strongly correlated to δ13C values under well-watered conditions, suggesting that base WUE may have a stronger impact on drought tolerance than WUE under water deficit. These results give strong insights on the innate WUE of a very large panel of varieties and suggest that studies of drought tolerance should include traits expressed under non-limiting conditions.

IMPACT OF NEW BIO STIMULANTS ON GRAPE SECONDARY METABOLITES UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE CONDITIONS

In a context of climate change and excessive use of agrochemical products, sustainable approaches for environmental and human health such as the use of bio stimulants in viticulture represent a potential option, against abiotic and biotic threats. Bio stimulants are organic compounds, microbes, or a combination of both, that stimulate plant’s vital processes, allowing high yields and good quality products. In vines, may trigger an innate immune response leading to the synthesis of secondary metabolites, key compounds for the organoleptic properties of grapes and wines.

Water deficit impacts grape development without dramatically changing thiol precursor levels

The use of new fungus disease-tolerant grapevine varieties is a long-term and promising solution to reduce chemical input in viticulture. However, little is known about the effects of water deficit (WD) on the thiol aromatic potential of new varieties coming up from breeding programs. Varietal thiols such as 3-sulfanylhexan-ol (3SH), 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP) and their derivatives are powerful aromatic compounds present in wines coming from odorless precursors in grapes, and could contribute to the wine typicity of such varieties.