Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Olfactometric and sensory study of red wines subjected to ultrasound or microwaves during their elaboration

Olfactometric and sensory study of red wines subjected to ultrasound or microwaves during their elaboration


The effect that some extraction techniques, such as ultrasound (Cacciola, Batllò, Ferraretto, Vincenzi, & Celotti, 2013; Povey & McClements, 1988) or microwaves (Carew, Close, & Dambergs, 2015; Carew, Gill, Close, & Dambergs, 2014) produce on the aroma of red wines, when applied to processes of extractive nature, such as pre-fermentative maceration or ageing with oak chips (Spanish oak – Quercus pyrenaica and French oak – Quercus robur) has been studied. The volatile profile was determined by means of gas chromatography coupled with olfactometric and mass spectrometric detection. A sensory analysis was also carried out. No indications were found to show that the pre-fermentative treatment with microwaves or ultrasound modified the sensory profile of the wines whereas the application of such energies during the ageing phase showed some positive trends at sensory level. Such changes were also confirmed by the olfactometric measurements. The application of ultrasound during the ageing of the wines resulted in a greater contribution of red fruits, aromatic intensity and wood than that obtained through microwaves. Spanish oak provided more volatile compounds than French oak and with a lower proportion of undesirable aromas. At the sensory level, Spanish oak also showed greater aromatic intensity and higher values for the wood descriptor, being preferred by the panel of judges.


Publication date: September 24, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article



Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences-University Institute of Wine and Food Research (IVAGRO-CAIV), University of Cadiz,- Carlota, Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Cádiz – Enrique, Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Universidty of Cádiz

Contact the author


red wine, olfactometry, sensory analysis, ultrasound, microwaves


Related articles…

Post-spring frost canopy development and fruit composition in cv. Barbera grapevines

One of the effects of warming trends is the advance of budburst, increasing the frequency of spring frost-related damage. In April 2021, a severe frost event affected central and northern italian viticulture. In a cv. Barbera vineyard located in the Colli Piacentini wine district, after such occurrence, vines were tracked and growth of primary bud shoots (PBS), secondary bud shoots (SBS), and suckers (SK) was monitored, as well as their fruitfulness and fruit composition. Vine performances were then compared to those of the previous year, when no post-budburst freezing temperatures occurred. The goal of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of SBS in restoring yield loss due to PBS injuries and analyze respective contribution to fruit composition.

Influence of a spontaneous cover crop on the vineyard and soil erosion under Mediterranean climate

Sixty five % of the agricultural area of the Basque Country located in the DO Ca Rioja corresponds to vineyards. More than 40% of it has an average slope greater than 10%, which makes it sensitive to erosive processes. Furthermore, it is foreseeable that extreme weather events (storms, hail, extreme heat and cold, etc.) will be favored due to climate change. Cover cropping can mitigate this risk, and therefore the objective of this work is to evaluate the impact that a vegetable cover has on the agronomic behavior of the vineyard, the quality of the grape and soil erosion. For this, a trial has been carried out with a Graciano variety vineyard with a slope between 10% -20% during the years 2020 and 2021. Conventional tillage management in the area has been compared (4-6 passes per year of tillage machinery) versus spontaneous vegetation cover management in the vineyard. This implies not tilling and allowing the grass of the land to colonize the range between the lines of vines, controlling their height through 1-3 mowing passes per year, always trying to affect the surface of the land as little as possible. The vegetative growth, yield and quality of the grape and wine was measured. Furthermore, erosion has been measured using Gerlasch boxes. The yield was lower in the second year of the trial in the cover crop treatment, but erosion was significantly reduced.


Wines with tropical fruit aromas have become increasingly more available1,2. With increased availability of different wine styles, it has become important to understand the compounds that cause the fruity aromas in wine. Previous work using micro fermentations showed that fermentation temperature gradients and time on skins resulted in an increase in thiol and ester compounds post fermentation and these compounds are known to cause tropical fruit aroma in wines³. This work aimed to scale up these fermentations/operations to determine if the desired aromas could still be achieved and if there is a perceivable difference in tropical fruit aromas, liking, and emotional response in the wines at the consumer level.

Soil survey and chemical parameters evaluation in viticultural zoning

The most recent methodological developments in soil survey and land evaluation, that can be taken as reference in the viticultural field, go over usage of the GIS and database. These informatic tools, which begin to be widely utilised, consent to realise evaluations at different geographic scale and with different data quality and quantity in entrance.

Effect of non-Saccharomyces yeast and lactic acid bacteria on selected sensory attributes and polyphenols of Syrah wines

Consumers predominantly use visual, aromatic and texture cues as quality/preference indicators to describe olfactory sensations. In this study, the effect of micro-organism in wine production was investigated using analytical and sensory techniques to achieve relevant analytical characterisation. Selected anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and phenolic acids were quantified in Syrah wines using RP-HPLC-DAD. Standard oenological parameters were also measured. Syrah grape must was fermented with various combinations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and non-Saccharomyces (Metschnikowia pulcherrima or Hanseniaspora uvarum) yeasts, which was followed by sequential inoculation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Oenococcus oeni or Lactobacillus plantarum).