The effect that some extraction techniques, such as ultrasound (Cacciola, Batllò, Ferraretto, Vincenzi, & Celotti, 2013; Povey & McClements, 1988) or microwaves (Carew, Close, & Dambergs, 2015; Carew, Gill, Close, & Dambergs, 2014) produce on the aroma of red wines, when applied to processes of extractive nature, such as pre-fermentative maceration or ageing with oak chips (Spanish oak – Quercus pyrenaica and French oak – Quercus robur) has been studied. The volatile profile was determined by means of gas chromatography coupled with olfactometric and mass spectrometric detection. A sensory analysis was also carried out. No indications were found to show that the pre-fermentative treatment with microwaves or ultrasound modified the sensory profile of the wines whereas the application of such energies during the ageing phase showed some positive trends at sensory level. Such changes were also confirmed by the olfactometric measurements. The application of ultrasound during the ageing of the wines resulted in a greater contribution of red fruits, aromatic intensity and wood than that obtained through microwaves. Spanish oak provided more volatile compounds than French oak and with a lower proportion of undesirable aromas. At the sensory level, Spanish oak also showed greater aromatic intensity and higher values for the wood descriptor, being preferred by the panel of judges.
Authors: Remedios Castro Mejías – Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences-University Institute of Wine and Food Research (IVAGRO-CAIV), University of Cadiz,- Carlota, SÁNCHEZ CÓRDOBA, Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Cádiz – Enrique, DURÁN GUERRERO, Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Universidty of Cádiz
Keywords: red wine, olfactometry, sensory analysis, ultrasound, microwaves