IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Macrowine 9 Macrowine 2016 9 Category: Oral - Macromolecules and metabolites

Oral – Macromolecules and metabolites

IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Macromolecules and metabolites

Fractionation of copper and iron in wine: Assessment of potential macromolecule and sulfur binding agents

Copper and iron are known to substantially impact wine stability through oxidative, reductive or colloidal phenomena. However, the binding of metal ions to different wine components under wine conditions, and the impact of this binding on the ability of the metal ions to induce spoilage processes, is not well understood. This study surveyed a range of red and white wines for an understanding of the variability of broad metal categories within the wines. The techniques utilized included an electrochemical constant current stripping potentiometry technique (ccSP), and solid phase extraction (SPE) fractionation of wine with subsequent analysis of the metal content of each fraction by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES).

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Macromolecules and metabolites

Reaction Mechanisms of Copper and Iron with Hydrogen Sulfide and Thiols in Model Wine

Fermentation derived sulfidic off-odors due to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and low molecular weight thiols are commonly encountered in wine production and removed by Cu(II) fining. However, the mechanism underlying Cu(II) fining remains poorly understood, and generally results in increased Cu concentration that lead to deleterious reactions in finished wine. The present study describes a mechanistic investigation of the iron and copper mediated reaction of H2S, cysteine, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, and 6-sulfanylhexan-1-ol with oxygen. The concentrations of H2S, thiols, oxygen, and acetaldehyde were monitored over time. It was found that Cu(II) was rapidly reduced by both H2S and thiols to Cu(I).

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Macromolecules and metabolites

Identification, quantification and organoleptic impact of « dried fruit » molecular markers in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and in red wines

The aromas found in young Bordeaux red wines made with Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon suggest a complex mixture of aromas of fresh red fruits such as cherry or blackberry for Merlot, and strawberry or blackcurrant for Cabernet Sauvignon. The aromas of these wines are closely linked with the maturity of the grapes. The climate change that has occurred during the last decade in Bordeaux has induced changes in the ripening conditions of grape berries. It is now widely admitted that over-ripening of the berries during hot and dry summers results in the development of characteristic flavors reminiscent of cooked fruits (fig, prune). The presence of these overriding odors found in both musts and young wines affects the quality and subtlety of the wine flavor and may shorten its shelf life.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Macromolecules and metabolites

Crown procyanidin: a new procyanidin sub-family with unusual cyclic skeleton in wine

Condensed tannins (also called proanthocyanidins) are a widely distributed throughout in plants kingdom and are one of the most important classes of secondary metabolites, in addition, they are part of the human diet. In wine, they are extracted during the winemaking process from grape skins and seeds. These compounds play an important role in red wine organoleptic characteristics such as color, bitterness and astringency. Condensed tannins in red wine are oligomers and polymers of flavan-3-ols unit such as catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechin-3-O-gallate. The monomeric units can be linked among them with direct interflavanoid linkage or mediated by aldehydes.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Macromolecules and metabolites

Defining the mechanisms and impact of winemaking treatments on tannin and polysaccharides in red wine: recent progress in creating diverse styles

Tannin and polysaccharide concentration and composition is important in defining the texture of red wines, but can vary due to factors such as cultivar, region, grape ripeness, viticultural practices and winemaking techniques. However, the concentration and composition of these macromolecules is dependent not only on grape tannin and polysaccharide concentration and composition, but also their extractability and, in the case of polysaccharides, their formation by yeast. Through studies into the influence of grape maturity, winemaking and sensory impacts of red grape polysaccharides, seed and skin tannins, recent research in our laboratory has shown that the processes involved in the extraction of these macromolecules from grapes and their retention in wine are very complex.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Macromolecules and metabolites

Grape metabolites, aroma precursors and the complexities of wine flavour

A critical aspect of wine quality from a consumer perspective is the overall impression of wine flavour, which is formed by the interplay of volatile aroma compounds, their precursors, and taste and matrix components. Grapes contribute some potent aroma compounds, together with a large pool of non-volatile precursors (e.g. glycoconjugates and amino acid conjugates). Aroma precursors can break down through chemical hydrolysis reactions, or through the action of yeast or enzymes, significantly changing the aroma profile of a wine during winemaking and storage. In addition, glycoconjugates of monoterpenes, norisoprenoids and volatile phenols, together with sulfur-conjugates in wine, provide a reservoir of additional flavour through the in-mouth release of volatiles which may be perceived retro-nasally.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Macromolecules and metabolites

Petrolomics-derived data interpretation to study acetaldehyde-epicatechin condensation reactions

During red wine ageing or conservation, color and taste change and astringency tends to reduce. These changes result from reactions of flavan-3-ols and/or anthocyanins among which condensation reactions with acetaldehyde are particularly important. The full characterization of these reactions has not been fully achieved because of difficulties in extracting and separating the newly formed compounds directly from wine. Model solutions mimicking food products constitute a simplified medium for their exploration, allowing the detection of the newly formed compounds, their isolation, and their structure elucidation.

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