– Several practices can be applied to vineyards in order to ensure good healthy for grapevines, adequate yield and fruit quality. Among them, the use of cover crops is a relevant option for soil management. It increases the organic matter, improves water infiltration, reduces risks of soil erosion and greenhouse gas emissions, in addition improving biodiversity in the vineyard.
The research is part of the “Ecovinegoals” project, financed by Interreg Adrion funds. It aims to encourage the adoption and dissemination of agroecological practices in intensive wine-growing areas. The study focuses on cost analysis of the wine-growing landscape enhancement in an organic winery in order to provide a useful tool for winemakers to direct their investments in green infrastructures. One of the Italian pilot areas of the Ecovinegoals project is the Venezia Biodistrict, characterized by viticulture in a flat reclamation area of 105,800 hectares.
High-altitude vineyards under extreme conditions in the PIWI context of cultivation: economic and marketing evidence from an exploratory study in Northern Italy
Viticulture has spread to unexpected locations, such as high-altitude terrain. Among these, high-altitude viticulture has captured considerable attention, not only for the uniqueness of its products and landscapes but also because it offers an effective response to climate changes
The aim of this study is to analyse and compare wineries that used Piwi varieties (acronym for the German Pilzwiderstandfähig, i.e., cryptogame-resistant) at high altitudes (between 500 and 920 m a.s.l.) with the traditional non-mountainous viticulture model.
Modern viticulture in Croatia and the world is mainly based on the grapevine varieties susceptible to various diseases and pests, which leads to unsustainable use of large amounts of pesticides. The sustainable development of viticulture in the future will only be possible by increasing the resistance of the grapevine through the development of new resistant varieties. Breeding programs have been launched in the leading wine-growing countries with the aim of developing resistant varieties possessing high quality level. Coratia is rich in in native grapevine varieties that are the basis of wine production, and are not included in the breeding programs of other countries.
‘Vignoles’ is an aromatic, white-fruited wine grape variety valued by growers and wineries in the Eastern United States. Vignoles is grown in diverse locations in New York, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Nebraska and Michigan. Consumers recognize and value the variety for its special wine quality.
The introduction into the Italian wine supply chain of the latest generation of fungi-resistant grapevine varieties, endowed with a greater or lesser strong resistance to downy and powdery mildews, represents a valid tool of making viticulture more sustainable, particularly in northern regions of the peninsula, where climatic conditions accentuate the pressure of fungal diseases. However, the affirmation of resistant varieties is a function of their agronomic value, as well as of their oenological and sensorial value. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in detail the sensory potential of the new resistant varieties, in order to understand their real possibility of inclusion in the modern global enological context.
In recent years, resistant varieties have returned to the attention of the wine sector as a response to climate change and the reduction of pesticides in grapevine management, which is the main culprit of pesticide use in European agriculture. In this context, the production of sparkling wines could be strongly influenced due to its requirements for a particular balance between sugars and acidity, and the necessity of sound grapes to ensure wine quality. However, these parameters are not the only ones that define the suitability of a grape variety to produce sparkling wine.
Dating back to the early domestication period of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), expansion of human activity led to the creation of thousands of modern day genotypes that serve multiple purposes such as table and wine consumption. They also encompass a strong phenotypic diversity. Presently, viticulture faces various challenges, which include threatening climatic change scenarios and an historical track record of genetic erosion. Paritularly with regards to wine varieties, there is a pressing need to characterize the extant genetic diversity of modern varieties, as a means to delvier knowledge-based solutions under a rapidly evolving scenario, that may enable improved yields and profiles, resistance to pathogens, and increased resilience to climate change.
Babić is a Croatian native grapevine variety grown in the Coastal region, mainly in the Šibenik and Primošten areas, famous for high quality red wines. The region is known for its warm Mediterranean climate and karst relief. Vineyards are found on the hillsides of varying slopes and exposition usually giving low yields of exceptional quality.
Soluble solids and firmness responses of a very slow ripening mutant to ripening acceleration treatments
Wine grapes have the ability to accumulate high amounts of hexoses (glucose and fructose), which is considered one of the main processes occurring during the ripening stage. Sugar accumulation dynamics respond to genetic, environmental and vineyard management factors, with a changing climate leading to advanced and faster sugar accumulation worldwide. Research on mitigation techniques to this phenomenon is ongoing, with the largest focus being vineyard techniques to delay sugar accumulation. Breeding represents another powerful tool to address the issue of high sugar concentration at harvest, since historical trends of selecting best sugar-accumulators may be inverted to breed varieties that accumulate diminished concentrations of hexoses while maintaining optimal acidity, color, mouthfeel and aroma compounds.
Behavior of disease resistant grapevine varieties to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) infections in the Castelli Romani area (Central Italy)
At CREA – Centro di Ricerca di Viticoltura ed Enologia, based in Velletri (RM), an experimental vineyard including 10 downy mildew resistent/tolerant grape varieties and two susceptible varieties was set up with the principal goal to evaluate the behavoir of these varieties in term of resistance to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). This evaluation, together to oenological studies, are necessary to register them also in Regional Register (in Lazio region). Monitoring of behavior towards Plasmopara viticulture of resistant vines were done in 2020 and 2021 at different times (phenological stages) and until harvesting, according to an international standard code BBCH a centesimal phenological scale, based on coding system.
Preliminary field studies of resistance of Georgian grapevine germplasm to powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator)
Erysiphe necator Schwein is a fungus that causes grapevine powdery mildew. It is one of the most problematic pathogens attacking Vitis vinifera L. The pathogen infects all green parts of the plant and reduces grape yield and quality. The suppression on mildew-susceptible cultivars requires intensive use of fungicides against pathogen, which has negative impact on the environment and human health.
Timing of leaf removal effects on vitis vinifera L. Cv. Grenache differed on two contrasting seasons
Warming trends over the winegrowing regions lead to an advance of grapevine phenology, diminution of yield and increased sugar content and must pH with a lower polyphenol content, especially anthocyanins. Canopy management practices are applied to control the source sink balance and improve the cluster microclimate to enhance berry composition. We hyphothesized that an early leaf removal might promote a delayed ripening through severe defoliation after fruitset; whereas, a late leaf removal at mid-ripening would reduce sugar accumulation.
Rootstocks are used in vineyards worldwide and have been the focus of many studies. However, rootstock performance varies based on regional climates and soil types. As Oregon experiences warmer seasons and variable precipitation patterns, growers are interested in rootstocks with more drought tolerance than the commonly planted rootstocks: 3309C, Riparia Gloire, and 101-14 Mgt. In Oregon’s Willamette Valley, annual precipitation is typically sufficient to make dry-farming possible and use of irrigation is limited.
The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) in the United States Department of Agriculture safeguards numerous species. Grapevines are split in two locations: Davis, CA and Geneva, NY. The two germplasms maintain 43 Vitis species with over 4500 genetically unique accessions.
Berry maturation in warm areas takes place very early, when temperatures are still high and favorable for carbohydrate synthesis and accumulation in the berries, but not as favorable for maintaining high titratable acidity or low pH, or for increasing berry polyphenol content. Different canopy management techniques have been proven to delay berry maturation at the expense of yield (severe canopy trimming, late spring pruning to induce sprouting of dormant buds, etc.). Minimal pruning delays berry ripening by highly increasing yield and by reducing the leaf area to fruit ratio.
Consequences of apical leaf removal on grapevine water status, heat damage, yield and grape ripening on Pinot n and Chardonnay
Climate change presents a significant challenge to grape growing worldwide as increased temperatures lead to wines with increased sugar and pH levels. Manipulation of the exposed leaf area is a powerful lever governing the assimilation and storage of non-structural carbohydrates in grapevines. Reducing the leaf-to-fruit ratio is now considered as a tool for adapting to hotter and dryer grape growing conditions.
One of the effects of warming trends is the advance of budburst, increasing the frequency of spring frost-related damage. In April 2021, a severe frost event affected central and northern italian viticulture. In a cv. Barbera vineyard located in the Colli Piacentini wine district, after such occurrence, vines were tracked and growth of primary bud shoots (PBS), secondary bud shoots (SBS), and suckers (SK) was monitored, as well as their fruitfulness and fruit composition. Vine performances were then compared to those of the previous year, when no post-budburst freezing temperatures occurred. The goal of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of SBS in restoring yield loss due to PBS injuries and analyze respective contribution to fruit composition.