The wine industry produces an enormous amount of waste every year. A wider inclusion of disregarded by-products in the human diet or its use as a source of bioactive compounds is a good strategy for reducing waste. It will not only introduce an added value to a waste product but also come upon the European Union and United Nations’ demands towards more sustainable agricultural approaches and circular economy.
Effect of abiotic stress and grape variety on amino acid and polyamine composition of red grape berries
Vines are exposed to environmental conditions that cause abiotic stress on the plants (drought, nutrient and mineral deficits, salinity, etc.). Polyamines are growth regulators involved in various physiological processes, as in abiotic plant stress responses. Stressful conditions can modify grape’s composition, and in this work, we have focused on studying the effect of abiotic stress on the composition of polyamines and amino acids in grapes. In addition, the effect of grape variety on these compounds has been studied.
The recovery of bioactive compounds from grape and wine by-products is currently an important objective for revaluation and sustainability. Grape pomace is one of the main by-products and is a rich source of some bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polysaccharide (PS) composition of extracts obtained from pomaces of different white and red grape varieties of Castilla y León. Grape pomaces were obtained after the pressing in the winemaking process.
Light is responsible for adverse reactions in wine including the formation of unpleasant flavors, loss of vitamins or photodegradation of anthocyanins. Among them, the riboflavin degradation leads to the formation of undesirable volatile compounds, known as light-struck taste. These photo-chemical reactions could be avoided by simply using opaque packaging. However, most rosé wines are kept in transparent bottles due to different commercial reasons. Some agri-food waste extracts have been studied for their photoprotective action which turn to be highly correlated with phenolic content .
Preliminary study of the influence of ripening on the polysaccharide content of different red grape varieties
Grape skin has a barrier and protective function in grapes. Cell wall of grape skins is mainly composed of polysaccharides such as pectins, celulloses and hemicelluloses and structural proteins. Terroir, variety and changes during ripening can affect the content of polysaccharides in grapes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of polysaccharides (PS) in grapes along the ripening process. Three red grape varieties were studied: Garnacha (G), Tempranillo (T) and Prieto Picudo (PP).
Association between dietary pattern and wine consumption and Alzheimer’s disease in a cohort from La Rioja (Spain)
Addressing modifiable risk factors is the most promising strategy to prevent/delay Alzheimer Disease (AD). The aim of the study was to establish the connections between dietetic habits, wine consumption and AD. Thus, 98 volunteers were recruited: 50 diagnosed as AD and 48 healthy/controls. The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used for dietary patterns assessment and, based on these data, the Mind Diet Score was calculated. (Poly)phenol metabolites (especially derived from wine consumption) were analyzed by UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS in 24-h urine samples to confirm dietary (poly)phenol consumption.
Do wine sulphites affect gut microbiota? An in vitro study of their digestion in the gastrointestinal tract
“Sulphites” and mainly sulphur dioxide (SO2) is by far the most widely used additive (E-220/INS 220) in winemaking and likely the most difficult to replace. The well-known antioxidant, antioxidasic and antimicrobial properties of SO2 make this molecule a practically essential tool, not only in winemaking, but also in the production of other food products. The current trend in winemaking is the reduction of this unfriendly additive due to its negative effects on health and environmental. In particular, it could cause headaches and intolerance/allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Wine is considered one of the major contributors of exposure of SO2 in the adult population, when this beverage is included in the diet.
Grape pomace (GP) is a winemaking by-product particularly rich in (poly)phenols and dietary fiber, which are the main active compounds responsible for its health-promoting effects. GP-derived products have been proposed to manage cardiovascular risk factors, including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and obesity. Studies on the potential impact of GP on gut health are much more recent. However, it is suggested that, to some extent, this activity of GP as a cardiometabolic health-promoting ingredient would begin in the gastrointestinal tract as GP components (i.e., (poly)phenols and fiber) undergo extensive catabolism, mainly by the action of the intestinal microbiota, that gives rise to low-molecular-weight bioactive compounds that can be absorbed and utilized by the body.
Condensed grape tannins play a major role in the organoleptic properties and quality of red wine. Recently, a new sub-family of macrocyclic condensed tannins has been identified in red wine and named “crown tannins”. Indeed, the first compound of the family identified and characterised by NMR was the crown procyanidin tetramer which is composed of a macrocyclic structure composed of four (-)-epicatechins link together by B-type interflavanoid linkage in the following an alternative sequences of C4-C8 and C4-C6 linkage. The 3D structure of this unusual crown procyanidin family reveals a central cavity in the molecule .
Application of an in vitro digestion model to study the bioaccessibility and the effect of the intestinal microbiota on the red wine proanthocyanidins
Proanthocyanidins are important phenolic fraction for wine quality, contributing to astringency, bitterness and color. Their metabolism begins in the mouth and continues throughout the gastrointestinal tract; however, most of them are accumulated in the colon where are metabolized by the intestinal microbiota, giving rise to a whole series of phenolic acids that may have greater activity at physiological level than the precursors. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the bioaccessibility of proanthocyanidins in a red wine developed by Bodegas Pradorey, as well as to evaluate the potential effect of intestinal microbiota on polyphenols metabolism identifying and quantifying secondary metabolites.
Antimicrobial activity of oenological polyphenols against Gram positive and Gram negative intestinal multidrug-resistant bacteria
Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a major current health problem. Polyphenols have demonstrated antibacterial activity, and in this work we studied the effect of oenological polyphenols on the growth of intestinal multidrug-resistant strains of human and animal origin. Two Enterococcus faecium strains, resistant to vancomycin and other antibiotics, and four Escherichia coli strains, resistant to ampicillin and other antibiotics, were included in this study. All strains showed multidrug resistant phenotypes and genotypes to at least two antibiotic families.
The agri-food industry is constantly searching for ingredients of high functional value, healthy and of natural origin. One species of particular interest is Vitis vinifera, due to its recognized antioxidant potential. Among the grape varieties, one group possesses these antioxidant compounds not only in the skin, but also in its pulp: Teinturier. The red grape has traditionally been used for color correction purposes in winemaking, however, its high antioxidant content transforms it into a raw material of high potential for new formulations of ingredients and foods for the health and wellness market.
Development and validation of a free solvent UHPLC/MS-MS method to analyse melatonin and its precursors in Spanish commercial wines
Melatonin is a bioactive compound present in foods and beverages such as wines. During alcoholic fermentation, yeast transforms tryptophan into certain indole compounds, including melatonin. This paper aims to develop and validate a free solvent analytical method by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) to determine melatonin and its precursors (L-tryptophan, tryptamine, serotonin, tryptophol, N-acetylserotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan, and 3- indoleacetic) that appropriately prevent the matrix effect.
Typicality of Rioja wines: identification of sensory profiles for the three subregions of DOCa Rioja
Within the DOCa Rioja three main production areas are differentiated: Rioja Alta (RA), Rioja Alavesa (RAv) and Rioja Oriental (RO). They are three diverse territories with particular characteristics that are claimed to give rise to differentiated profiles. The present work aims at evaluating the sensory diversity of young commercial red wines in these three subregions. Therefore 30 young red wines (mainly Tempranillo and vintage 2021), ten from each subregion, were sensory described following a non-verbal free sorting task and a verbal free comment task by 32 well-established Rioja winemakers.
Long-lasting flavour perception of wines treated with oenological additives considering the individual PROP taste-phenotype
The use of oenological additives is becoming a common practice due to the technological and sensory properties they provide to the wines. However, the number of studies focused on the impact that these additives might induce on wine flavor perception during wine tasting is still quite scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of three different types of common oenological additives: two oenotannins (ellagitannin and gallotannin) and a commercial preparation of yeast mannoproteins on the long-lasting flavor perception (aroma and astringency).
In recent years there has been a growing demand for alternative packaging designs in the food industry focused on diminishing the carbon footprint. Despite the environmental advantages of cans versus bottles, the traditional environment of wine has hindered the establishment of less contaminant containers. In this context, the objective of this study was to understand and generate knowledge about consumers´ perception of canned wines in comparison to bottled wines.
is the overall ecological awarness among Spanish winemakers related to their attitudes towards natural wines?
The Agenda 2030 of the EU sets out the main guidelines for transitioning towards a resilient, green and safe economy. To this regard, the wine sector is experiencing an ecological transition in different ways such as increasing the production of ecological crops, or promoting the production of wines under more environmental-friendly and healthier (i.e., lower levels of SO2) products. These alternatives to conventional production are a smaller proportion of wines, in constant growth and demand, and follow alternative and minority practices, which range from sustainable to deeply philosophical thoughts. Among these methods there are organic, biodynamic and, more recently, natural wines.
This study presents an investigation based on sensory analysis data of Spanish wines with geographical indications collected over a three-year period. Sensory analysis plays a crucial role in assessing the quality, characteristics, and perception of wines. The trained tasting panel at Dolmar Laboratory, accredited for objective sensory evaluation of wines since 2016, has been tasting over 5000 wines. However, it is since 2021, when a computer application for tastings was developed, that the digitalization of data allows for detailed statistical analysis of the results.