Grape pomace, an active ingredient at the intestinal level: Updated evidence
Grape pomace (GP) is a winemaking by-product particularly rich in (poly)phenols and dietary fiber, which are the main active compounds responsible for its health-promoting effects. GP-derived products have been proposed to manage cardiovascular risk factors, including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and obesity. Studies on the potential impact of GP on gut health are much more recent. However, it is suggested that, to some extent, this activity of GP as a cardiometabolic health-promoting ingredient would begin in the gastrointestinal tract as GP components (i.e., (poly)phenols and fiber) undergo extensive catabolism, mainly by the action of the intestinal microbiota, that gives rise to low-molecular-weight bioactive compounds that can be absorbed and utilized by the body. This work updates the scientific evidence in relation to the activities of GP in the intestinal environment. The review includes publications from 2010 onwards, sourced from main online databases. After this peer review, we have identified six main targets of potential bioactivity of GP in the gut: (i) nutrient digestion and absorption, (ii) enteroendocrine gut hormones release and satiety, (iii) gut morphology, (iv) intestinal barrier integrity, (v) intestinal inflammatory and oxidative status, and (vi) gut microbiome (see figure) .
Although the current state of knowledge does not clearly define a primary mechanism of action for GP at the intestinal level, it is clearly stated that GP’s overall effect reinforces gut function as a crucial first line of defense against multiple disorders.
1) Taladrid D. et al (2023) Grape pomace as a cardiometabolic health-promoting ingredient: activity in the intestinal environment. Antioxidants,12: 979, DOI 10.3390/antiox12040979
Issue: ICGWS 2023
1Institute of Food Science Research (CIAL, CSIC-UAM), c/ Nicolás Cabrera, 9, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid, Spain
2Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Science, c/ Francisco Tomás y Va-liente, 7, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid, Spain
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grape pomace, (poly)phenols, dietary fiber, intestinal environment