terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Short-term relationships between climate and grapevine trunk diseases in southern French vineyards

Short-term relationships between climate and grapevine trunk diseases in southern French vineyards

Abstract

An increasing plant dieback has been observed in vineyards these past two decades, that has been partly attributed to the incidence of grapevine trunk diseases. Among them, esca and Botryosphaeria dieback are increasingly affecting grapevine mortality and yield loss, but little is known about the relationships between leaf symptoms and climate, hampering our ability to predict future trends in grapevine dieback. Our aim was to test short-term relationships between weather conditions and leaf symptom incidence in southern France vineyards. We harmonized and compiled summer surveys leaf symptoms of grapevine trunk disease in a database gathering 50 vineyards. Surveys were conducted on a weekly to bimonthly basis during the period 2003-2021, leading to 69 site-by-year plots. Vineyards were characterised by different ages (8 to 37 years old plants), grapevine varieties (n = 11), cultural practices, soil and climate conditions. Climate data were compiled from Safran daily data of Météo-France and averaged on different time steps. For each plot, we derived weekly rates of leaf symptom incidence using non-parametric Loess models. To account for contrasting conditions among vineyards, we scaled both leaf symptom and climate data, focusing on variations relative to plot. Statistical models show highly significant relationships between local leaf symptom trends and climatic conditions on a weekly to monthly time step. As expected, the higher the evaporative demand (temperature and humidity) the higher the incidence of new weekly cases. However, an increase in drought conditions and wind speed inhibited the incidence of leaf symptoms. Our results suggest that fungi associated with grapevine trunk diseases benefit from warm conditions but are inhibited by dry conditions that both are expected to increase in the next future. Our findings provide important insights to better understand plant-climate-diseases relationships in the field and anticipate trends for the next decades.

DOI:

Publication date: May 31, 2022

Issue: Terclim 2022

Type: Article

Authors

Thibaut Fréjaville1, Lucia Guérin-Dubrana1, Philippe Larignon2, Pascal Lecomte
and Chloé E.L. Delmas1

1INRAE, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, ISVV, Santé et Agroécologie du Vignoble (SAVE), Villenave d’Ornon, France
2Institut Français de la Vigne et du Vin, Pôle Rhône-Méditerranée, Rodilhan, France

Contact the author

Keywords

esca, Botryosphaeria dieback, modelling, weather, weekly incidence rate

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Terclim 2022

Citation

Related articles…

Sensory profile: a tool to characterize originality of wines produced without sulfites

A trend to reduce chemical inputs in wines exists, especially sulfur dioxide (SO2). This additive is widely used due to its antioxidant, antiseptic and antioxidasic properties. During without sulfites vinification, bioprotection by adding yeast on harvest could be a sulfites alternative. With extension of this wine market, sensory impact linked to sulfites absence and/or sulfites alternative should be evaluated. That’s what this approach proposes to do, focusing on sensory characteristics of wines produced with or without SO2 addition during the winemaking process. METHODS: Wines were elaborated from Merlot grapes of two maturity levels according to three modalities: SO2, without SO2 and bioprotection on harvest (mix of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Metschnikowia pulcherrima). SO2 modality was sulfited throughout the winemaking and aging processes whether other modalities received any addition. After two years of aging, sensory studies were carried out with a specific panel for one month. First, descriptors were generated to differentiate the wines, then panelists were trained on these specific descriptors for five sessions and finally wines sensory profiles were elaborated

Impacts of environmental variability and viticultural practices on grapevine behaviour at terroir scales

Climate change poses several challenges for the wine-industry in the 21st century. Adaptation of viticultural and winemaking practices are therefore essential to preserve wine quality and typicity. Given the complex interactions between physical, biological and human factors at terroir scales, studies conducted at these fine scales allow to better define the local environment and its influences on grapevine growth and berry ripening.

Upscaling the integrated terroir zoning through digital soil mapping: a case study in the Designation of Origin Campo de Borja

homogeneous zones by intersecting several partial zonings of major factors that influence vineyard growth. Each of them follows specific process from their corresponding disciplines. Soil zoning specifically refers to a Soil Resource Inventory map that has traditionally been generated by conventional soil mapping methods. These methods have shortcomings in reaching fine cartographic and categorical details and involve significant expenses, which undermines their applicability. A new framework named Digital Soil Mapping has introduced quantitative models by statistical techniques to establish soil-landscape relationships and is able to provide intensive scale cartography.

In the present study, a microzoning at 1:10.000 scale is generated from an initial zoning, where the conventional soil map with polytaxic map units is replaced by a new one from digital techniques that disaggregates them. The comparison between the zonings considers a quantitative evaluation of capability for each Homogeneous Terroir Unit by means of the Viticultural Quality Index and its categorization based on its distribution by map. The spatial intersection of both maps gives rise to a confusion matrix in which the flows of class variations after the substitution are assessed.

The results show a five-fold increase in the number of Homogeneous Terroir Units identified and a larger differentiation among them, evidenced by a wider range in the capability index distribution. Both elements are accompanied by an increase in the detection of areas of higher potential within previously undervalued uniform zones.These features are a direct effect of the improvements brought by Digital Soil Mapping techniques and would verify the advantages of their implementation in the Integrated Terroir zoning. Eventually, such new highly detailed terroir units would benefit precision viticulture and sustainable management practices.

A.O.C. taureau de Camargue

A.O.C. réservée aux viandes fraîches de bovins mâles ou femelles, nés, élevés et abattus dans une aire géographique définie (voir carte)

Optical visualization of embolism spread in drought‐induced leaves: revealing differences across three grapevine genotypes

‐Evaluation of xylem embolism is an important challenge in identifying drought tolerant genotypes within the context of climate change.