terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 VOLATILE, PHENOLIC AND COLORIMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE DIFFERENT LAMBRUSCO APPELLATIONS

VOLATILE, PHENOLIC AND COLORIMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE DIFFERENT LAMBRUSCO APPELLATIONS

Abstract

Lambrusco is a commercially successful sparkling red and rosé wine. With 13.06 million litres sold in 2021 was the second best-selling Italian wine after Chianti. According to National Catalogue of Vine Varieties there are thirteen Lambrusco Varieties with which to date are produced seven PDO wines. Among these, “Lambrusco Salamino di Santa Croce”, “Lambrusco Grasparossa di Castelvetro” and “Lambrusco di Sorbara” are the only ones that can be considered mono-varietal appellations, all located in Modena area. The PDOs contemplate the possibility of producing wines by secondary fermentation either in tank (Charmat method), or in bottle (Classico method). Sur lie is a third method commonly employed for Lambrusco, similar to the Classico method, from which differs for the absence of disgorgement.

The present study has two aims: we intended to provide for the first time a detailed characterization of the volatile chemical and phenolic composition and the colorimetric parameters of the three mono-varietal Lambrusco PDOs “Lambrusco Salamino di Santa Croce”, “Lambrusco Grasparossa di Castelvetro” and “Lambrusco di Sorbara” and we wanted to investigate the influence of the three production methods considered, Charmat, Classico and Sur lie on relevant aroma compounds.

Volatile composition was investigated thanks to GC-MS coupled with different extraction techniques (SPE and SPME). Total polyphenols and anthocyanins were evaluated with specific enzymatic assays, tannins with methyl cellulose precipitable assay. CIElab parameters were studied with a reflectance colorimeter.

We found that the three types wine were differentiated by many volatile compounds. Lambrusco Grasparossa showed higher content of cyclic terpenes and sulphur compounds, Salamino higher content of linalool and 1,4-cineole, while Sorbara showed quite high levels of β-myrcene, 1,8-cineole, TDN, vitispirane and cis-3-hexenol. Fermentation-derived compounds showed a wide intra-varietal variability.

The type of secondary fermentation method (Charmat, Classico or Sur lie) can impact significantly Lambrusco volatile composition, highlighting the importance of various complex phenomena including aging period, adsorption of volatile compounds on yeast lees as well as formation of volatile compounds from amino acids.

With regard to the content of total polyphenols, tannins and anthocyanins, Lambrusco di Sorbara was characterised by a lower content than Grasparossa and Salamino, which was also reflected in the colorimetric parameters.

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

Riccardo Bicego¹, Davide Slaghenaufi¹ And Maurizio Ugliano1*

1. University of Verona, Department of Biotechnology, Villa Lebrecht, via della Pieve 70, San Pietro in Cariano, 37029, Italy

Contact the author*

Keywords

Sparkling red wines, Charmat, Champenoise, Varietal characterization

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

PREVALENCE OF OAK-RELATED AROMA COMPOUNDS IN PREMIUM WINES

Barrel fermentation and barrel-ageing of wine are commonly utilised practices in premium wine production. The wine aroma compounds related to barrel contact are varied and can enhance a range of wine aromas and flavours, such as ‘struck flint’, ‘caramel’, ‘red berry’, ‘toasty’ and ‘nutty’, as well as conventional oaky characters such as ‘vanilla’, ‘spice’, ‘smoky’ and ‘coconut’. A survey of commercially produced premium Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir and Chardonnay wines was conducted, assessing the prevalence of compounds that have been proposed as barrel-ageing markers¹ including oak lactones, volatile phenols, furanones, aldehydes, thiazoles2,3, phenylmethanethiol⁴ and 2-furylmethanethiol.⁵

ASSESSMENT OF ‘DOLCETTO’ GRAPES AND WINES FROM DIFFERENT AREAS OF OVADA DOCG

Dolcetto (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the traditionally cultivated varieties in Piedmont (north-east Italy). Dolcetto wines have long been associated with local consumption and they are little known internationally. In particular, the Ovada area (south-east Piedmont), even if it represents a small share of the regional PDO Dolcetto production, is one of the oldest and vocated territory, giving wine also suitable for aging. In this study, the basic composition and phenolic content of Dolcetto grapes for Ovada DOCG wines have been investigated in three different vintages (2020-2022), as well as the main aspects of the derived commercial and experimental wines (basic parameters, phenolics, volatile compounds, sensory properties).

OENOLOGICAL AND SUSTAINABILITY POTENTIAL OF WINES PRODUCED FROM DISEASE RESISTANT GRAPE CULTIVARS (PIWI WINES)

The strategy for sustainability in the wine sector of the EU refers to a set of practices and principles that aim to minimize the negative impact of wine production on the environment, social and economic sustainability. Sustainable wine production involves a range of practices that are designed to reduce waste, conserve resources, and promote the well-being of workers and communities.

WINE SWIRLING: A FIRST STEP TOWARDS THE UNLOCKING OF THE WINE’STASTER GESTURE

Right after the pouring of wine in a glass, a myriad of volatile organic compounds, including ethanol, overwhelm the glass headspace, thus causing the so-called wine’s bouquet [1]. Otherwise, it is worth noting that during wine tasting, most people automatically swirl their glass to enhance the release of aromas in the glass headspace [1]. About a decade ago, Swiss researchers revealed the complex fluid mechanics underlying wine swirling [2]. However, despite mechanically repeated throughout wine tasting, the consequences of glass swirling on the chemical space found in the headspace of wine glasses are still barely known.

WINE LEES AS A SOURCE OF NITROGEN FOR OENOCOCCUS OENI TO IMPROVE MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION PERFORMANCE

Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a desired process in red and acidic white wines, after alcoholic fermentation (AF), carried out by the lactic acid bacterium (LAB) Oenococcus oeni. The advantages are an increase of pH, microbiological stabilization and organoleptic improvement of the final wine. However, the presence of stress factors such as ethanol, low pH, high total SO2, lack of nutrients and presence of inhibitors, could affect the successful completion of MLF [1]. Changes in amino acid composition and deficiencies in peptides after AF, showed that MLF can be delayed, signaling its importance for bacterial growth and L-malic acid degradation during MLF [2].